Time up to the civil war ended


Book by Leonid Sabaneev

Extremely peculiar breed of dogs, undoubtedly bred by Russian hunters, as one of the most beautiful dogs, had no equal in speed at short distances.

All this obliges us to trace in detail the history of hunting with greyhounds in Russia and the origin of dog greyhounds.

Unfortunately, information about hunting and dogs in the Slavs in ancient times is very scarce. It is understandable, if we take into account that the chroniclers were monks, in general spiritual persons, always very hostile to hunting and considered the dog unclean - a dog snoodo. In this respect, the Catholic clergy differed sharply from the Greek-Russian, as before the Reformation, even before the 18th century, most of the bishops and higher clergy were hunters. We know that even now the best hunting dog factories - setters and pointers - belong to Anglican priests.

Despite, however, the paucity of information about hunting and dogs of the Pretatar period, it can be proved that Russian greyhounds - breeds of relatively modern origin and in no case purebred of all Habsburgs and Hohenzollerns, as claimed by the authority of dog hunters P. M. M. M. Machevarianov, and even more so were not created by such, did not exist for the first time, according to some non-modern.

The fact that the Slavs in ancient times did not have and could not be greyhounds in the present sense of the word, that is, such fast dogs, which could within a few minutes, even seconds catch up in the clean place of any beast for the simple reason that they are faster. The greyhound catches, not screws. The very area occupied by the Slavs was then covered with dense forests and could not be conducive to hunting with such dogs. Nowhere is there any description of such bullying and the adjective "greyhound" is used, at least until the 15th century, only to refer to the speed of horses. It is known that in ancient Russia hunting - catching - was carried out with the help of shadows and dogs, boiling squirrels, looking for beavers, chasing and detaining deer, bison and tour; but these were obviously the same wit dogs that still occur in almost all of Russia and the Caucasus as fishing, yard and shepherd. This is proved by hunting frescoes adorning the staircase to the chorale of Sofia Cathedral in Kiev, built by Yaroslav Wise in memory of the reflection of the Pechenegs8, although the creator of "Russian Truth" preferred to "sit on the shore

In "Russian Truth" appointed quite a large penalty for the stolen dog: along with a falcon and a hawk. "And who steals the dog, any river with a rod." The frescoes, among other scenes, depict a squirrel hunt with a husky, horse hunting for a bear and a fierce beast (barca), a sharp dog chasing a deer, and a falcon hunt for a hare. In the will of Vladimir Monomakh26 does not mention dogs, and actually hunting - fishing, catching - in those days had, unlike fishing, a kind of martial arts of heroes with large and dangerous wild animals with little help from dogs. The princes of Kiev and Novgorod could then have only catching dogs, which differed not so much fast, as strength and spite. Greyhounds princes and their vigilantes were quite replaced by much faster catching birds - falcon, hawk and golden eagle, who took a hare, fox, wolf, saiga and, moreover, feathered game. This method of hunting, often mentioned in the annals, apparently originates from India, where all the Slavs came from; in India, however, there are no greyhounds, and dog hunting there is not known, even between mohammedans.

We can only assume that the princes of Kiev could have dogs from the Balkan Peninsula - it is those brutal semi-borz-semi-racer, which are still preserved in the Balkan mountains, representing a cross between North African greyhounds with a bearded sheepdog. This assumption is all the more likely that similar brutal dogs, as we have seen, were brought from the front of Asia to the Baltic coast by one of the Germanic tribes in the era of the great migration of peoples. But these were still not greyhounds, but stalwart, strong and relatively very fast picks, much less similar to greyhounds than modern Scottish dirhounds. In general, it is difficult to say positively whether these dogs were brought to the Baltic coast through the Caucasus from Asia Minor already in the form of a cross between an Arab greyhound with a sheepdog, or whether this breed was formed on the spot by crossing the native Armenian sheep with the chorty greyhounds of the Celts and the Belgs. The last guess is more likely.

Above, it was noticed that the greyhound in the solid forests occupied by the Slavs before the Tatar invasion, was completely inappropriate and useless. But it was not in ancient times and in all South and South-Eastern Russia, which had a steppe character, but not yet devoid of forests. Herodotus, describing the life of the peoples who lived in the south-east of Europe for 500 years before the river, says that they are all engaged in hunting, which is made as follows: a hunter, looking from the top of a tree of any beast, pus-

hawk, any falcon, three hryvnias of sale, and the gentleman hryvnia." Obviously, here we are talking about hunting dogs belonging to vigilantes, i.e. the mentioned fishing dogs, used for hunting large animals, which could not be poisoned by falcons and hawks.

throws a dart at him, and then, jumping on his horse, pursues the wounded with the help of dogs. Obviously, they weren't greyhounds, they were catching dogs. The most method of baiting a hare, a fox, a wolf or other animals could not fail to draw the attention of our ancestors. All the ancient inhabitants of Southern Russia of the Pretatar period, from the Scythians, Sarmatians and to the ruffs and Pechenega, belonged to the Turkish-Tatar tribes, natives of Central Asia - Altai and Mongolia. But since modern Altai Tatars and Mongols do not have greyhounds, there is no reason to think that they were in their relatives who penetrated Eastern Europe before the magometanism spread in West Asia. Since the ancient Assyrians had a real hunt with greyhounds was unknown and on their numerous monuments we meet as beastly hunting dogs images of huge dogs, less often - witty dogs like our northern, we have a good reason to say in the affirmative that in Asia Minor, Persia and the Caspian steppes greyhounds were brought by the Arabs who conquered the 7th century. Here the Arab greyhounds mingled with native fold-eared and long-haired mountain dogs and formed a new independent breed of so-called eastern greyhounds, characterized by a short dog on the body with shaggy hanging ears and tail, exposing their mixed origin.

When the Mongols in the 13th century flooded Persia and the Baghdad caliphate and took Baghdad, they certainly could not help but appreciate the hunting merits and speed of the dogs unknown to them, already enjoyed great honor in the Mohammedan world. These greyhounds were especially suitable for hunting in the steppes, where they extracted them a lot of animals - hares, saiga and antelope, quite in harmony with the rounded, mass hunting method inherent in the Mongol-Tatar tribes, when the hunt involved a whole army, which surrounded a huge space. Marco Polo describes such hunting during his time at Kublya-haka in Mongolia, where, however, the role of greyhounds was performed by cheetahs and even trained tigers. Mongolian hordes during their invasion of South-Eastern Europe, by necessity, had to be fed hunting, as the herds that followed them and were taken from the floorboards and other nomadic peoples were not enough to feed the hordes. As far as Russia was in those distant times rich in snow-free animals, it is evident from the fact that three hundred years later the army of John the Terrible, which went to Kazan, was fed mainly by the harvested animals, poultry and fish.

But in addition to the Low-Asian greyhounds Tatars, undoubtedly, brought with them a lot of their Mongolian-Tatar dogs, sharply different from native dogs as light shorthair, and heavier and longer-haired - wolf-like type. These Tatar dogs, which will be mentioned in their place, more native had the right to the name of hounds. When the Tatars settled down, occupying South-Eastern Russia, and accepted the mohammedanism, they, like all followers of Islam, paid special attention to the greyhounds and hunting with them. And since in the wooded areas of baiting they were very difficult, gradually developed a special, Tatar, mixed way of hunting, which had an analogy with the way of screwing the animals one half of the horde on the other. The role of the beaters was performed here by Tatar hounds, who drove out of the forest to the edge of the animals directly into the teeth of the greyhounds, who were held on the svors by riders - Khans and Uzbeks. This method of hunting seems to have survived to the present day in the Prialtai Kyrgyz, to whom he passed from the Russian Tatars.

Since the 15th century chroniclers no longer talk about fishing, fishing, and about psars, dog hunting, hunting with dogs. For the first time the word "psar" is mentioned in the spiritual testament of Prince Vladimir Andreevich (1410). Tatar rule could not be left without influence on the change in the nature of the indigenous Russian hunts - the sage with dogs of large animals in the forest and baiting birds of small animals and birds in the meadows, fields and swamps - baiting, in turn borrowed by the Tatars. We know that the Russians, by their re-enaction, have adopted many mores and customs, from clothing to terems, and there is no doubt that the dog hunt for the Tatar specimen existed even before Basil III (Father John the Terrible), who, as is known to be istrriches-ki, was a passionate lover of greyhound baiting and even fell ill fatally in the field at Volokolamsky (1533).

Gerberstein in his notes about Moscow gives a rather detailed description of the grand witch hunt with greyhounds. From this description it is clear that in general terms the hunt was carried out in the same way as now. The beast, mainly hare, was driven out of the forest with the help of a very large number of large canes molossus et odo-riferos,i.e. muzzles and spirits, or hounds dogs, and talk about loud and diverse barking. The baiting of the expelled hares was carried out by the so-called. kurtzi "with fluffy tails and ears", "incapable of a long race" who were lowered from the side of the horse. Obviously, these were the eastern Fold greyhounds, who had long hair only on the ears and the rule, and it was the jackets, i.e. Kurdish greyhounds - the name retained by Asian greyhounds until recently.

From this we can conclude that the greyhounds brought by the Tatars to Russia, if they have changed, very little and still have preserved hanging ears and a short dog on the body, which, perhaps, a little rough and lengthened due to the influence of the climate. As Mohammedans and imitators of the Arabs, the Tatar Khans and Uzbeks had to have about their greyhounds, considered a symbol of nobility and wealth, the same care that African bedoucils and Central Asian pelvises of Turkmen, and, believe-but, carefully blue them in purity, without mixing with other dogs, considered to be impure. The presence of the Tatar prince (Shih-Alei) and the Tatars on the hunt described by Gerberstein may be an indication that it has not yet been sufficiently assimilated by the Russians and required leaders. How much the greyhounds were valued then, it is clear from the fact that at the conclusion of the trade agreement with the Danish King Christian II in 1517 he was sent as a gift greyhounds, which Christians, in turn, sent to the French King Francis I.

The dog hunting got full citizenship in the Moscow state a little later, it was in the time of John the Terrible, after the capture of Kazan, when the wise government immediately consolidated its power, resettling a significant part of Tatar princes and Uzbeks (nobles), the most troubled element, dissatisfied with the new order, in the present Yaroslavl and Kostroma province, and endowed them with estates and forcing to be baptized. From that moment the confluence of Tatar and Russian serving class, soon reborn, Tatar greyhounds and hounds spread throughout the Moscow state and under the name of Slovenian dogs penetrate even to the west, in Poland. In the old Polish hunting books (?) it is said that for baiting wolves it is necessary to use Slovenian dogs, which differ in height and strength.

It must be assumed that in the second half of the 16th century the withdrawal of a new - Russian - breed of greyhounds begins. This is proved, firstly, by the inconsistency of the Tatar greyhound climate and the conditions of island (i.e. expectant, not active) hunting; secondly, because Christians had no reason to treat their dogs so pedantically; finally, the greyhounds dissipated everywhere, and it was difficult to keep the breed clean, especially since the relations of the Kazan Tatars with the Astrakhan, Nogai27 and Crimean had to be very difficult. Tatar greyhounds could belong only to the Tatars of the upper class, were never numerous and were preserved from degeneration only by fresh blood of southern greyhounds.

Thus, there was a conscious, partly forced interbreeding with native hunting dogs, which were the wit of a wolf-type dog. By the end of the 16th century, yaroslavl and Kostroma Tatar nobles developed a new breed of greyhounds, distinguished by a long dog on the whole body with undercoat, combs and a mane around the neck and large standing or full ears. All these sharp breeding signs were transmitted by the northern wolf-like dog, in turn, from repeated submix of wolf blood naturally and artificially to a pure-mouthed half-wild dog, which differed from the wolf by the lighter body structure and long standing and narrow ears. This form of ears, which was noticed in a variety of Russian greyhounds, known as sharps, until the fifties of the 19th century and according to the laws of reversal, which is common as a rare exception to the present, proves that the dog greyhound could not have formed from the interbreeding of the Tatar greyhound with a short-eared wolf. Over time, most of the dog greyhounds, like any cultural breed that does not need to constantly strain their hearing and ear muscles, the end of the ears began to bend backwards, and then the ears began to hold in the book, pressed to the back of the head, alarming, ie slightly raised only in minutes of excitement. Thus, the long, swarti and fluffy ears of the kurtzi at Gerberstein turned into a standing, half-standing and pressed ear of a Russian greyhound; Tatar greyhound, as a mixed breed, was weaker than the northern purebred and thoroughbred fishing dog and only gave it greater lightness, slenderness and beauty.

There is no doubt that for interbreeding with the Tatar greyhound selected the largest and lightest wit northern dogs, which in many cases in many cases replaced greyhounds, i.e. were catching dogs that could stick the beast, especially in forests and rough terrain. Such greyhound dogs are still found in many parts of Northern Russia and Siberia; these include the Syryan, Vogul, Bashkir and Tunguska huskies.28 According to P. E. Yashero-va, in the village of Sogostyre, at the mouths of Lena, there is a variety of stalwart northern dogs, in a warehouse very similar to greyhounds, with such a narrow skull that their ears, being pressed, cross ends, as in the former of our dogs. The slight addition of them is caused by a similar greyhound's appointment to catch deer in winter in the tundra on the nast. Between these light varieties of barks, distinguished by long narrow ears, there are specimens of very large growth, up to 17 verks, for example, between Bashkir and Vogul, and there is no reason to think that between the indigenous dogs of Middle and Northern Russia, in general in the Moscow state and even the Grandhity there were no such dogs, especially since the sygoliki are still being carried out in Vologda. This breed or variety differs from the Karelian husky of Olonetsha and Novgorod provinces with a longer ear and a lighter addition. Prince A. A. Shirinsky-Shikhma-totov, a researcher of northern dog breeds, says that the movements of the zyryan husky can be compared with the jump and throw of a dog, while the karelian race resembles the running of heavy hounds. We know that in the time of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the so-called horse dogs were especially appreciated. In 1665, Boyarin Blagovo hit the king with a brow of 2 hunters and 10 lohs dogs, for which he received a valuable royal gift - 100 p. of money. These catching dogs were carried out in Russia in the early 19th century, as Levshin is mentioned in his books. This was certainly not the name of hounds, but the wit of big-growth huskies, accustomed to the snouting moose.

In any case, the Tatar greyhound interbred with native dogs, and it is very strange to assume that the Russian dog comes from Siberian or Mongolian dogs, based on the fact that these dogs can catch the beast and seem to have a very bad flair and extremely sharp vision. Siberian wit of dogs have nothing to do with it for the simple reason that the Mongol-Tatar tribes could not bring them in large numbers, because they were exclusively forest and tundra dogs. The Mongols could be accompanied mainly by Mongolian dogs, if only because they still feed on the corpses of people and animals, which could not be lacking in invasion. But Mongolian dogs have nothing to do with greyhounds at all, much less pso


It is not clear how the zoologist Gondatti, followed by Baron Rosen in his "Essay of the History of the Greyhound" can claim that in the entire space of Siberia there is one breed of barks with poorly developed flair, almost barking, with curved tips of ears and big eyes skill. The very names of these dogs - wind, animal fishing dogs, huskies - prove their sensitivity and their inherent ability to bark to indicate the location of the beast. All this is now known to every hunter. Gondatti was obviously referring to the sled dogs he had seen. Northern dogs are divided into many breeds and varieties, and between them really some have a relatively weak flair, which in the tundra, as in the steppe, does not matter as much as in the forest and rough terrain. In the tundra the dog can see further than to smell, and in all the strones, and not in the wind.

howle, because they have hanging small ears, relatively short hair, colored more black in the understulops and, as we shall see further, approach the hound type.

The northern dog of the light warehouse gave strongly everything that distinguishes Russian canines from other greyhounds: a long dog, forming a comb and mane, a suit - gray, gray-peg and white, the shape of ears, a straight staging of the hind legs (under itself), finally, a tail, which, as you know, many huskies do not bend the ring on the back, and hold the wolf. Even the throw, i.e. the extreme tension of forces in overtaking the beast, is a quality transmitted by the Husky and only received from the dog's extreme development. Laika also makes a series of fast-following one-after-another jumps at the sight of the beast and also throws a pursuit when he is convinced of the futility of his efforts, which she never does, at least in the steppe, an eastern greyhound, characterized by the traction and persistence of the chase.

The best proof of the validity of the theory of the origin of Russian dogs from the mixture of Tatar greyhounds with the Central Russian husky is the fact that in the North Caucasus, the Highlanders of The Adygea and the Cuban Cossacks greyhounds have standing ears with curved tips, often gray color and a longer dog on the neck, like a mane. Apparently, these greyhounds descended from a cross between a fold-and-a-half-horse greyhound with a Caucasian wolf-like dog, a mongrel and a herding dog belonging to the bark type. There is reason to think that this mixing happened relatively recently, not more than 40-50 years ago, as in the 70s the greyhounds of the North Caucasus, at least in the Tersk region, almost did not differ from the Crimean.

N. P. Kisensky in his remarkable work "Experience of the genealogy of dogs" which has nothing equal not only in Russian, but also in all foreign literature and laid the groundwork for the decision on the origin of different breeds of dogs, the first pointed out that the Russian greyhound is the result of crossing the northern wolf-like dog with the eastern greyhound. The latter gave only the lightness of the warehouse, lengthened the muzzle, but most of the signs inherited the dog from the husky. Standing ear, which later began to be laid back - in a puff that is noticed in many barks, ribs below the elbows, back with a top (inclination) and the length of the dog are transferred to her husky; the silkiness of the dog is a consequence of care (and, let's add on our part, depends

Grey with a black stripe on the ridge, with a short (comparatively) dog, except for the chest, neck and tail.

For example, Karagos, brought by Egornov in 1876 and formerly on display.

also from the later impurity of the soft-haired greyhound); in poor upbringing and poor cultivation, it becomes rigid and coarse (sandy). The elongated dog on the neck, tanks and combs, especially the clutch, are peculiar only to the northern type. The grey wolf suit is characteristic of barks; sexual is a modification of the wolf's suit in the other direction - it is, in fact, light red, and red wolves, as well as huskies, are often, but between them there is never red. Laiki and wolves, like most of the canines, belong to the light-faced, and they are uncharacteristic, and if there are, the light and often separated. In general, Kishensky quite thoroughly considers the distribution of the dog and the suit so important and stable breeding grounds that it is possible to decide on the basis of their decision about the origin of the dog. Finally, the dog greyhound has "the same wolfish manner of waiting for prey at close range, aiming lying down and catching one short desperate effort; the latter, which has been the subject of selection for generations, has evolved into a fabulous shot-like shotgun."

Be that as it may, almost 50 years after the capture of Kazan and began mixing the winners with the defeated and native dog with the present, Tsar Boris already sends two greyhounds to the Persian Shah Abbas, of course, a new Russian breed, as the Tatar greyhounds were little different from the Persians, did not represent anything interesting for the Persians and their parcel had no sense. In addition, probably refers to the mention of ancient Polish authors about the dogs of Slovenian, with the merits of which Poles had the opportunity to see in the times of interregnum and impostors. It is known historically that the first impostor was a passionate lover of dog hunting and bear baiting, and that he and the Surrounding Polish Pans brought with them a considerable number of Polish harts. The latter, having their own merits, could even have some, though insignificant, influence on the statues of canines, perhaps a little ennobled their overall appearance, improved ears and rules. However, even Tsar Fedor Ioannovich English merchants brought greyhounds, cops and bulldogs.

It is hard to expect that in troubled times of the late 16th and early 17th centuries dog hunting flourished in the Moscow state. In the suburbs, obviously, there were no good dogs, if Tsar Mikhail Theodorovich had to send for them in the northern

Red fox-shaped huskies are found in Finland and make up a separate breed.

bearish side. In 1619, he sends to Galic, Chukhlomu, Soligalic, Sudai, Kologrov and Unju two hunters and three horse-drawn dogs with the order to take in those places from all sorts of people dogs greyhounds, hounds, medelian and bears. The letter even ordered the mayors to give the archers, guns and sendmen to help against those boyars, nobles and other locals who would not want to voluntarily part with their favorite dogs and bears. Hence the direct conclusion that the present Kostroma province was indeed the birthplace of dog greyhounds and Russian hounds and in it in the 17th century met the best, most typical representatives.

It must be assumed that it is from the era of the romanov house that the ordering of dog hunting begins and bringing it into a coherent system and Russian greyhounds are finally isolated in a separate, independent breed. In 1635, there was a "Regul, belonging to the dog hunt", composed by the so-called Riga German Christian Olgerdovich von Lesssin in German. From this "Regula" we can see that in the dog hunt of the tugdash time a certain terminology has been developed, in which there were already very few Tatar words; that the Tatar remained only hunting clothes, saddles and signals, which began not from a high tone, as in the west, but from a low; that, at last, the Tatar fold greyhounds, if not transferred at all, then become very rare. Von Lessin describes only one breed of dog greyhounds, which have "dogs and foxes like vortices, a dog long hanging, no matter what wool, like a tow," i.e. straight, not wavy. Thus, already at the beginning of the 17th century, the Russian greyhound was sharply distinguished by the length and softness of the dog and could not have almost the same short coat as the Crimean, only with undercoat, i.e. the one described by Mr. Gubin under the name of purepsova, considered by him for the oldest breed of Russian greyhounds.

Tsar Alexei Mihajlovic, as can be seen from historical documents, mainly from his letters, hunted almost exclusively with birds and, if he poisoned the wolves and hares with greyhounds, it is very rare. This did not prevent him from appreciating the greyhounds and, together with the Falcons, sending them to the Persian Shah, probably to western European states. By this time, falconry is at its highest development, but at the same time it is the property of a few individuals; baiting with greyhounds, apparently, begins to replace bullying


This (handwritten) regul was found recently in the archives of the Counts of Panin.

catching birds, and the boyar of the times of the kings from the house of the Romanovs, apparently, amused mainly by dog hunting, less often hunting with a hawk. Probably, then there was a well-known saying: falconry - royal, dog - bar, shotgun - Psarskaya, as well as a saying-mystery (runs a penny, for a penny ruble, for a ruble one hundred rubles, and a hundred rubles and no price). Firearms began to be used for hunting animals (large) from the time of John the Terrible, but, apparently, until Peter III, when the shooting of the flight, which became known in the time of Alexei Mikhailovich, Russian nobles considered shameful hunting with a gun and continued to take even bears and elk from under dogs knives and horns, feathered wild, and it was very difficult to catch.

Peter the Great was not a hunter at all: during his boiling activity he had no time to have fun hunting. But his grandson Peter II was a passionate dog hunter, and probably the study of the archives of imperial hunting in particular will shed a lot of light on dog hunting at the beginning of the last century. Undoubtedly, together with the founding of St. Petersburg and constant relations with the Baltic knighthood began the interaction of the Russian greyhound and the Baltic Brudath. This influence was particularly affected in the reign of Anna Ioannovna, during the time of Byron and the influence of the Liandians, who received extensive estates in Central Russia. Russian hunters had to be amazed by the growth, strength and malice of the Kurland brucers, and the Kurland barons and the new Russian German landlords, in turn, were captivated by the fast and beautiful of Russian dogs. It is very high in the early 18th century that the Baltic Greyhounds already had a significant mixture of Irish wolfhounds, which were obliged by their outstanding qualities. In the letters of F. Naumov and Artemy Volynsky to Count S. A. Saltykov, dating back to 1734, repeatedly mention the black and chubaro-pegy brudaths who "jumped not famously." Similarly, from these letters it can be concluded that Russian hunters strenuously interbred different breeds of greyhounds - English, Polish brudath - between themselves and with dogs.

Although there is no description, no drawings of Kurland bruda greyhounds, or clokes of the past century, but it is safe to say that they belonged, like local bars and bruda hounds, not to bristly-haired mountain type, but to soft-haired, curly, that is, plain type, which includes a sheepdog and poodle. It is very likely that in the ancient Ostsei castles there will be portraits of barons with brutal greyhounds, paintings depicting bullying by them, and in the family archives - correspondence, casting light on this now-disappeared breed. Undoubtedly one thing, the Kurland clumps were sharply different from the Scottish and other greyhounds; when they began to grow out, the Ostzei Germans began to interfere with them, on the one hand, with the Russian dogs, and on the other - with the Irish wolfhounds and, probably, with the Scottish dirhounds.

These crossings gave, as you would expect, different results: in the first case, the dog greyhound lengthened the dog's clos, made it softer, properly wavy, even curled. Other cross-breeding dogs with unbreeded dogs, and there is no doubt about the strange and not yet explained fact that such mixes very often unusually lengthened the dog! This was how the Irish water spaniels, also the German cord-poodles, were formed. During the repeated interbreeding of the received cross-crosses with the dog disappeared mustache, eyebrows and beard. Dogs have become smooth-footed, smooth-legged, smooth-tailed, with curly dog, like a sheep, at first glance strikingly similar to the Irish water spaniel, only huge, sharp-hearted and greyhound-like. You would think that the Kurland dogs descended from the cross-kneading of the Curland clogs with the harts of adjacent Poland. But this opinion is contradicted by the low-prevalence, elongated dog on the neck and especially the extraordinary rod, connected with the throw, inherited from the dog; malice, strength and growth are transferred to them, of course, by shreds and increased by selection. It is very possible,4 that in the withdrawal of this breed the main role belonged not to the Ostzei barons, but to Russian dog hunters, more interested in greyhounds and hunting with them than the Germans, whose character it did not correspond at all. Hardly in the Baltic region there was ever a real dog hunt for the Russian-Tatar specimen, and probably the barons used greyhounds mainly for baiting wolves. We only know that Russian hunters of the last century have repeatedly crossed dogs with brudast - both Irish and Kurland. The famous Beast of Prince G. F. Baryatinsky, who took alone the mother wolf (see. The Greyhounds), came from Reed-Kapa, an Irish wolfhound discharged from England by the Kurdish landowner Blum, and a dog.

Thus, around the 50s of the last century a new breed of canine greyhounds was formed with many signs of brudath, only bare-footed. But since these Kurland dogs had a very clumsy appearance and too sharply stood out between Russian dog beauties, it is quite natural that Russian hunters could not be satisfied with the appearance of Kurland dogs and, in turn, began to strenuously mix them with thoroughbred Russian dogs. The result was the final disappearance of the brudath type, both in the dog and in the warehouse, but the dog has improved - it has become longer, thinner and thicker. A new species was formed, which, unlike the indigenous breed, began to be called a dense-pop. From here it is clear comparison of Gubin a dog greyhound, as he calls actually a dense-pop, with eagle trotters, and his opinion that this breed was bred recently, so that in the early eight hundred years it was considered a great rarity and was valued very dear according to Gubin, landowner of Shatsky county P. E. Mosolov, having real dogs (fat), sold them in Poland. From the further description it is clear that Gubin considers the dog product of mixing pureps greyhound, considered by him the ancient Russian breed, with the Kurland dog on the grounds that between the canine (thick-) expressed often holosherish in the type of pureps. "Regu-lom" von Lessin clearly proves that in the 17th century there was only one, or dominated, breed of greyhounds with a long dog "like a tow," and therefore, Gubin's opinion, however, and not supported, does not stand up to any criticism.

Despite the fact that Elizaveta Petrovna, while still a princess, was distinguished by an extraordinary love for dog hunting, we could not find a single printed information about how and with which greyhounds she hunted in the suburban village of Izmaylov and other places. But even in the even longer reign of Catherine the Great did not come out any hunting books, from which it would be possible to compose a concept about the then dog hunts and breeds of greyhounds. Only a handwritten book, probably a copy, "The Guide to Gun Hunting" by the rangersman Peter III Bastian, which says nothing about greyhounds, has been preserved; 1778 (?) and 1785. G.B. "The Dog Hunter" was published, a translation of some, probably handwritten, Polish book, which included a description of a chort greyhound. In the 2nd edition of "The Perfect Ranger" (17) the description of the greyhound and the dog 'hunting is a literal reprint of the "Dog Hunter", so that almost the only printed information about the Russian dog hunt and Russian greyhounds of the time of Catherine we find in "Notes of Bolotov" (1791), only a few lines, and in

It is more than likely that the gusto greyhound was bred by Count A. G. Orlov.

Dubrovin's essays about Pugachevshchina, which mentions the greyhounds of the Siberian landowner Ermolov (grandfather of our contemporary N. P. Ermolov), sent to him by Count Panin, the subterfuze of the Pugachev revolt. However, in the 60s, it seems that a guide to dog hunting under the name "On the order of dog hunting of greyhounds and hounds" was drawn up for Count A. G. Orlov. This book, written under titles, was presented to the famous dog hunter Of the Siberian lips. N.M. Naumov, from whom she passed to P.M. Machevarianov. As for the book "The Dog Hunter" of 1728 (?) of the year, which Gubin mentions several times in his manual, it would be thought that this is the same "Dog Hunter" by G. B. mentioned above; but since Mr. Gubin goes on to say that he writes out from this old book the frets of Kurland greyhounds, which G.B. does not mention at all, it must be concluded that he has some of the hunters and bibliographers not known book about dog hunting. In all likelihood, it is handwritten and written later than 1728.

For the first time, we meet the division of Russian greyhounds into breeds only in Levshin's "The Book for Hunters" and in his "Universal and Full Economics" dating back to the beginning of this century. The Book for Hunters (p. 24) states that "dog dogs are divided into common canines and dense dogs. To the latter, first of all, the dogs, actually called Russian, having a long coat in curls, a very thick and long dog on the rule." And then: "The dogs have a very thick, long and clumpy coat. The Sikhs are also divided into bearded ordinarys and clogs. Clokes have all over the body, even on the head and legs, the wool is thick, stiff, sometimes curly. The best of them (?) Kurland; the heads, ears, legs to elbows and tail are as if shaved; The other body is covered with thick wool..."

Almost the same thing is repeated in "Universal and Full Economics." "1) Russian dogs are thick-stalwarts, have thick hair in curls, i.e. long braids, waves hanging; tail, or, in a hunting, usually, with thick, pigtails the same with a hair-like fringe. 2) The dogs have a rather thick coat, but without curls. 3) Boring (?),

It is the phrase: "not narrow and not round, would be wide on top"; rule "in a pure sickle and in itself would be free."

It can be assumed, however, that it was composed for the leadership of the young Emperor Peter II (1727-1730).


Inako Kurland called, have a thick, stiff and curly coat. The native Kurland dog should have a head, ears and legs on the knee with low smooth hair, as if shaved, the mill and other parts are covered with thick hair, except the tail, which should be naked and sick, i.e. in the ring bent ..." As you can see, kurland dogs here are incorrectly classified as brutal, as they are holodards. In both books, "Polish! English and Crimean" and not a word is mentioned about pure-pop. How could this breed of canines occur and where could the opinion that it is an ancient, indigenous breed of Russian greyhounds, proving its blood by the fact that it never "express surprises like dogs", and the very name "pure dog" in the sense of lack of any sub-mix and "purity" of the dog by sight? Although Mr. Gubin refers to the unknown book "The Dog Hunter", in which there are as if the name and description of pureps, but all the old hunters, of which many began a hunting career at the beginning of this century, never considered pure-russian native Russian breed, and the later product of a mixture of dogs with chorty and oriental greyhounds, most of them - not even the unidentified breed. We cannot, of course, certainly deny the possibility of existence in any area of Central Russia with a long time offspring of greyhounds with a very short dog, but with a undercoat like the aforementioned Cuban greyhounds. Such a breed could have been formed from the mixing of the eastern greyhound with some short-haired husky, like the last greyhound, but it is likely that it could have come from the harts given by the Poles in the late 16th and early 17th centuries along with the impostor. The influence of the Polish Harts continued in the 18th century, and from the letters of Volynsky and Saltykov we see that Russian dog hunters admired the growth of the chorus of the Lithuanian Count of Savishi and intended to knit it with the Polish same or bruce bitch. Artemis Volynsky also wrote that "one English nobleman brought him an English bitch; such a naive has not yet seen", from the fact that in the reign of Anna Ioannovna were not particularly rare and English greyhounds. The beauty and purity of the forms of the latter, which had no sub-mixes of the bulldog, were seductive for the Russian dog hunters, and it is not surprising that they at every opportunity mixed Polish and English chorths to their dogs.

In any case, such cross-sorts in the last century could not be particularly frequent and systematic and met only at the big bar, who had intercourse, had acquaintance with Polish tycoons and members of the English embassy, as Volynsky,

Saltykov, Panin and Orlov. Chistops could stand out in an independent race only at the beginning of this century, at the end of the Napoleonic wars. If even now, when the number of dog hunters has decreased at least ten times against the former, in our memory at the end of the Sevastopol campaign of the last Turkish war, even the Akhal-Teke expedition29, were brought to Russia by the military of dozens, hundreds of Crimeans, Turkish greyhounds and Turkmen basins, at the beginning of this century Russian officers could not be ashamed of this kind of live contraception and without the desire to please all the best. It is known for sure that all our native cops come from French, partly German legaches, given in huge numbers from France and Germany. And since most hunter-officers were then dog hunters, not gun hunters, it follows that at the end of the Napoleonic wars a lot of people got to Russia and greyhounds, mainly Polish choristers, part of the English or close to them, then did not make up a great rarity in the whole of Western Europe, especially in Poland and used mainly for baiting hares.

Thus, in the twenties of this century in Russia there were four independent breeds of dog greyhounds: Russian dog, kurland, gustops and pureps, and each of them had sharp, more or less visual differences even for the uninitiated. In these times, almost every wealthy landowner, suburban provinces in particular, charged himself with a moral duty to keep greyhounds and hounds, sometimes in large numbers - hundreds. Many of the owners of such large plants out of false narcissism did not allow to interfere with their dogs with strangers and led the breed in absolute purity, adhering to one of these types with some small differences of warehouse, growth and mainly color. As a result of such closed breed management in different areas formed numerous varieties - offspring of these types, which had very stable passed signs and called by the name of the owners. It is impossible, in fact, to allow the identity of the yaroslavl and Vladimir landowners of the hunters of the greyhounds. There were thick-ish curls, a kilo and with a straight dog, leached and with rather convex ribs, there were, at last, a lot of such family breeds, which could not be attributed to any particular type, as they were intermediate.

Although in the Turkish wars of the last century30 Russian dog hunters and exported from Crimea and Moldova a considerable number of fold-hounds, but they for a long time did not have and could not have a noticeable effect on the frets and jump of Russian dogs. The real steppe baiting and hunting of the race were then almost unknown, and there was only island riding and baiting from under the hounds, and required a rod and a throw, but not force in the sense of ability to long jump. Russian hunters, as now, were afraid to spoil, or rather, disfigure the canine cross of the steppe, mainly because the latter for a long time, i.e. for several generations, passed the hanging ears, completely not harmonizing the general species of the dog. Permanent

It's Rice. 5. Mountain Greyhound ("Hunting Calendar")

Mountain houind

island riding in the forest provinces served to the extraordinary development of speed at short distances to the detriment of power. If we take into account the often stubborn conduct of the breed in itself, i.e. closed, despite the periodically devastated kennel plague, leading to forced incest and degeneration, it is not surprising that when the forests thinned in 20 - 30 years, the famous dense-pop were unsuitable for prolonged persecution in the Poles, especially in the steppes of Saratov, Voronezh and other black-earth provinces. More prudent southern hunters interfered with their dense-pop with pureps or with English and Polish chorta, which, of course, could not spoil the general appearance of the Russian greyhound, and its ears in particular. But the old-style English greyhound was not strong, itself was degeneration and could not improve the loose build-up of the dense.

At this critical moment, when most of the dog hunters began to grumble on the short-heartedness of the dense, on the stage came greyhounds, who were still almost unknown and combined force with a rod and steel legs, not broken in any stabbing and ice. They were mountain greyhounds of the Caucasian Tatars and Persian Kurds31, different from the steppe basins of the Turkmens.

The first slides were brought to Russia by Field Marshal Count I. V. Gudovich and his associates after the Arpaci case (in 1807), where the Persian seraskir Yusuf Pasha was broken. Some of these dogs were kutsy and were distinguished by the extraordinary development of the ass, which made them very dodgy on hijacking, despite the lack of a tail. But the glory of mountain greyhounds begins, in fact, with the famous Heart (Major General P.A. Ivashkin), originating from the dogs of I.A. Ko-lgrivov and derived from the crossing of the mountain with pureps. Over the course of 5 years (from 1818 to 1823)Heart was distinguished by phenomenal friskyness on the Moscow gardens, where he did not meet rivals. Heart did not catch, but, so to speak, beat the beast (hare), jumping b. hours forward. There was no example that he would not only miss a hare, but also kill him from the first hijacking. It was in the full sense of a dashing dog.

Extraordinary frolic of the Heart was the reason that all very rich and very passionate hunters began to get from the Caucasus mountain greyhounds and mix them with canines, with some adhered to the dog, others, who had the opportunity to deliver new producers - mountain type. In addition to Kologrivov, Ivashkin, the mountain greyhounds were from A. A. Stolypin, the Saratov provincial leader, E. N. Timashev, A.P. Krav-kov, and especially General A.V. Jiharev, who led them until his death in almost pure form. Cherkes' blood, wiped out

See. "Y. connose. and hunting," 1842,No. Here for the first time the term purepsy is used in print, but not in the sense of breed, but to refer to the blood, purity of the canine, which is proved by the dash between words. It must be assumed that at this time the dense-pop prevailed and purely dog was relatively small. Later, as it is known, the name purepsov began to apply to the Russian greyhounds, who had a relatively short dog and came from mixing dogs with both chorty and eastern greyhounds.

It was the Anatolian kus, presented by some Circassian (?) prince, who married Stolypin's relative. Brought red-peg dog and black bitch (Machevarian. Letters. - "Pr. and hunting," 1880, VII).

Den from Persia, there were mostly dogs kaluga hunters: Chelishchev greyhounds also had among the ancestors of the mountain greyhounds (since the 1920s).

The Turkish campaign of 1828, in turn, had the consequence of many eastern greyhounds exported to Russia - Crimean and Turkish itself; Caucasian officers, returning to their homeland, constantly brought mountain dogs. The famous Stolypin bitch Lubezna, later (in the 30s?) Otradna A.S. Khomyakov, distinguished in Moscow gardens, also came from the Anatolian pieces stolypin, mixed with the canine, even more contributed to the consolidation of the glory of the eastern greyhounds and the opinion about the need to cross the dog with the 9s for the first lack of strength. "I should have seen," Machevarianov said, "as the saratov gentlemen and, in imitation of them, the adjacent provinces of the hunters, puzzled by the Crimeans, rushed to get the dogs with the ears. There was no dissection of blood, no thoroughbreds, no articles, no fret: if only the ears hung; and it was easy to get it from the Kalmyks and Kyrgyz roaming in the Astrakhan and Saratov steppes. How many times in the analysis of these non-tops were mentioned princes Tyumen and Junger-Bukeyev as the main broods of such eminent breeds; Shamil was also the bravest." A huge number of Crimeans were brought to the southern and middle black-earth provinces after the Crimean campaign.

Unsurprisingly, by the 1860s, most of the canines were mixed with crimeans, generally eastern greyhounds, lost a long dog and a characteristic staging of the ears - in the mortgage, that is, made short-haired and got an ear with a snatch, although short, but loose. These jumbled canines have been known to us around the 50s by the not quite correct name of pureps, implying they have a short captive dog. Such pure-pop dogs had at one time a very large distribution, but, in fact, did not have time to stand out in a special breed with permanent signs, as under this name were reasoned not only the exchange of dogs with the eastern, the most numerous, but also the products of crossing dogs with discharged English and Polish chorty greyhounds, of which many were brought to Russia in 1831 after the first Polish uprising. Therefore, the very popular belief that pure greyhounds came solely from mixing canines with English is wrong, and such Anglops were a minority. However, back in the 1920s, the English

"Zap. Hunter Simbirsk, Lips., p. 41.

Bitch Modestka, who belonged to Polivanova, made to pay attention to the English greyhounds, but since they did not correspond to our climate and in those days got with great difficulty, they were rarely seen by a few advanced dog hunters, who willingly, however, mixed the blood of English and choristers to the dog, as these cross-ears could not have such an ugly ear.

It can be said in the affirmative that by the 1860s all Russian dogs had lost their thoroughbreds, which could hardly have been found between them a greyhound without the slightest, even remote,

Fig. 6. Crimean Greyhound ("Hunting Calendar")


impurities of the blood of the vistus. The Kurland dogs disappeared without a trace, probably even earlier, and only vague memories of them remained; there are no real dense-nesses, too, even in their homeland , in the provinces, lying to the north and east of Moscow. There were only better and worse-dressed dogs, and all almost had a loose ear: ears were kept in the form of a rare exception. The liberation of the peasants immediately reduced by at least three-quarters the number of dog hunts, which survived only the most zealous, true hunters, and before not particularly relying on the psa eels; this, of course, could not be conducive to careful management of the breed. The ancient type of dense-pop is so lost that some hunters, and the elderly, began to express the opinion that this breed never existed, mythical.

Indeed, at the Polytechnic Exhibition of 1872 and the first regular Imperial Hunting Society in 1874, there was not only not a single real dense dog, but most of the dogs, called dogs, were actually pure-pop.

These exhibitions, which had the importance of inspection of the available material, showing the complete absence and loss of certain types, served to unite the dog hunters and convinced them to refrain from further mixing of dogs with chorets and viscies and stick to the same type. As we shall see further, the result of crossing different family varieties was a modern dog, different from the former canine and densely muscular large development of muscles and greater strength, preserving their rod, and sometimes throwing. The 90s' gardens showed, however, that these "improved" dogs could not yet compete in speed, compete with English and that in relation to the speed of greyhound racing we were as far behind the English as we lagged behind the Americans in trotting sport.

From this brief essay of the origin of our dogs it is obvious that the history of greyhounds in Russia can be divided into 4 periods. The first period - Tatar - from the 13th century to Alexei Mikhailovich, during which a new breed of Russian greyhounds was produced and the order of dog hunting was established. The 2nd period begins with von Lessin's "Regula" and bringing greyhound hunting into a slender system and is characterized by a fascination with greyhounds, their malice, growth and strength, then the withdrawal of new breeds - Kurland dog and gustop. The third period - from the 1920s until the liberation of the peasants - is characterized by the fashion for the eastern greyhounds, the goofy mix of all the former breeds, the perfect disappearance of the Kurland dog and the almost complete loss of the dense-pop type. Finally, the newest, modern period of ours is distinguished by the desire of hunters to develop from the remaining material a universal dog, which would catch both in the distance and short, as well as the termination of experiments on the interbreeding of Russian greyhounds with Oriental and English.

As for the first period, there is little chance that it will ever be clarified. About the greyhounds of the last century, probably, in time will be found abundant material in the archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, imperial hunting and some noble families. About the dog hunt of the early 19th century there is already a sufficient number of printed evidence of contemporaries, and one can imagine a fairly complete picture of the activities of dog hunters before emancipation. The distinctive features of this period: first the numerous varieties, caused by the desire of each large dog hunter to bring out their own breed, then the most careless mixing of them. Many of these family offspring had more or less sharp differences in frets, suits and internal qualities, so sharp that an experienced eye connoisseur could determine the dog's belonging to one or another known hunt.

Let's consider now the main of these family offspring.

We know that in Catherine's times they were known as the owners of large kennels. F. Baryatinsky, the owner of the famous half-brothered Beast (see page 63), such historical figures as Count zubov, who very much wanted to receive this Beast, and Count P. I. Panin, who, and pacifying the Pugachev revolt, did not forget about the dogs, as can be seen from his letter to O.A. Pozdeev, which speaks of the rezving of the dog. , the grandfather of the famous dog hunters N.P. Ermolov, who recently died.

Еще более знамениты охоты графа Алексея Григорьевича Орлова, князя Салтыкова, светлейшего князя П. В. Лопухина; позднее славились наумовские, липуновские, трегубовские, сущов-ские, плещеевские псовые, также собаки Храповицкого и Коло-гривова. Все эти отродья давно исчезли, но кровь некоторых из них сохранилась в немногих современных псовых охотах. По преда­нию, у графа А. Г. Орлова были борзые всех пород, но преимуще­ственно густопсовые, и он был главным выводителем этой породы, что более нежели вероятно, так как вряд ли кто имел такие сред­ства и возможность иметь лучших производителей и такие знания, талант и чутье животновода. Охота его ездила в отъезжие поля за сотни верст, причем приглашались все соседние помещики. Ему же, графу А. Г. Орлову, принадлежал почин устройства в Москве садок, на которые заблаговременно рассылались приглашения-повестки по всей России*.

Князь П. В. Лопухин имел также громадную охоту (в Воро­нежской губ.) и был страстным любителем собак. Покойный А. В. Жихарев, говоря о происхождении своих борзых, передает, что сын князя П. П. Лопухин рассказывал ему, что отец за несколько часов до смерти позвал его к себе и завещал беречь, как брата, светлоголового кобеля Прозора. Эта масть преобладала в лопухинских борзых.

Н. М. Наумов, симбирский сосед графа А. Г. Орлова, посто­янно охотился с последним, хотя имел очень большую охоту: 200 —

* Вероятно, в биографии графа найдутся и другие подробности, каса­ющиеся его псовой охоты.

300 борзых и 30 — 40 смычков гончих внапуску. Борзые у него были густопсовые, псовые, чистопсовые, брудастые двух пород и малая часть английских и хортых. По-видимому, лучшие наумов-ские борзые происходили от собак графа. Последний перед сме­ртью (в 1808 г.) передал Наумову, как ближайшему другу и това­рищу по охоте, книгу «О порядошном содержании псовой охоты борзых и гончих собак», написанную под титлами в 1765 году. Эту книгу Наумов, в свою очередь, незадолго до кончины подарил П. М. Мачеварианову, пользовавшемуся его дружбой и имевшему его собак.

The greyhounds of I.P. Lyapunov also enjoyed high-profile fame in the early 19th century between hunters of the Tambov and Voronezh provinces. They were real gusty with an unusually long and thin dog, which was worried about the slightest movement of air even in the room. Thanks to the dogs of Lipunov from small-town nobles became a general-guarantor, acquired great funds and friendship of St. Prince P. V. Lopukhin. From Lipunov's dense-pop occur cans A.V. Jihareva (see below).

I. Kologrivov, the famous half-mountain dog Heart, bought by General P. A. Ivashkin, apparently had a larger part of the interfering dogs. The same semi-pop belonged to Plekirkh, presented to him by the famous Orlov hunter N.V. Kireevsky. Blood of Kologriv dogs was also in the greyhounds S. Glebov; many greyhounds in kursk province have the ancestor of the Ferocious IB. I. Kologrivova (son). The ferocious, in turn, came from the famous mountain male Count Gudovich and the dog. From -Heart, as you know, there was no offspring; The ferociously tied with the dog bitch Pulka /Masolevsky, gave a number of frisky dogs.

Khrapovitsky's dogs in Kaluga and Khodalei (in Tula?) were also of mixed origin - semi-gorsky, and many were even kovsy. Cherkes, a male Persian (?) breed, accidentally acquired by Khrapowitzky, became the ancestor of most of the greyhound Kaluga hunters - N.M. Smirnov, P. A. Bereznikov, V. F. Belkin, M.A. Geyer, N.V. Ma-sharova, N. P. Sorokhtin.

See. Tomiline's article in "Prir. and hunting," 1890,May. G. Kashkarov in the April book "Y. Hunting" 1878. explains in detail the origin of these dogs. Cherkes, by all accounts, was a pure-sis, not an eastern greyhound, as he had his ears laid back. Khrapovitsky started hunting (in Maloyaroslavetsky u. ) since 1846. From Cherkes and gray with the underpunds of the dog-sucking Saiga Prime Major A. St. Belkin was a red Black Sea Mars I and a half-bull snake. Mars was different

More details are available about the rocks of dense-pop Tregubov, Plescheva, Suschev in Vladimir and adjacent provinces, breeds famous for beauty and friskyness. This is how P. M. Machevarianov describes them.

Tregubovsky, "The dog is generally rude; growth average (!): males fifteen, and fourteen tops. Head with a forehead, but dry and with a duct among the forehead; The tong is dry and folding; eyes are huge skill, dark-colored, shiny and intelligent; ears are small, thin, put together and absolutely sharp - the end, and on the back of the head lie tightly one near the other. Steppe and the corps of the richness of the unspeakable; ribs are dense, barrel-like and down four fingers below the elbows; the sacrum is long and wide!.. Six fingers are placed between the rear maclaks; Black meat is huge. The body is strong and firm as an oak; the rule is subtle - really and short, with a rare, but long lavatory dog. The hind legs are set wide, the front legs are straight as arrows, and although rough, but bony, springy and dry; the grooves are glued together, (paw) in a lump, and the dog stands on the claws. Psovia is wavy and silky; its color is predominantly floor-to-floor, chubar, poluge-pegi and chubaro-pegi. This breed was the fiercest: from it was born a lot of dashing dogs. The throw of these dogs is fabulous. Their homeland is the Vladimir province of Suzdal county. But only this breed because of its richness and excess energy did not like lying and required constant work; otherwise it will either get fat or it will not be held back by any constipation.

The breed of orbak pleschev was the beauty of the perfect! All stalwarts: arshin, and males - arshin and one and a half tops in inclination; with long proud necks, statuesic to grace and extremely frisky. At the pleschev dogs, when the ears were raised

unusually spitefulness, coupled with frolics (once they were poisoned in the morning 12 russ, and he took a wolf alone). From Cherkes and the choral black-and-peg of the Village there was Cherkiza, from which both Mars, as well as Sultan (son of Cherkes and Zaletka) were led by greyhound dogs Berezni-kova and Smirnov. From the other son of Cherkes and Saletka - Arab and half-strong Serpent came the famous Siberia A. A. Atryganiev, dark blue with red underced males of enormous height, extraordinary width and strength, very angry, but with fallen eyes. Dogs Berez-nikova and Smirnov, who had a common hunt, were more part of black and black-peg in the underces and pure-pop, sometimes even chorty. Gayer dogs come from V.F. Belkin's greyhounds, related dogs Hrapovitsky, Bereznikov and Smirnov. The snatch in the ears, which was noticed in the Geyer, Belkin and Mazharov dogs, was given by the semi-Crimean bitch of the sarnitsa. Siberia subsequently passed to N.M. Smirnov.

you, then the ends of them bent in advance. The dog is straight, soft and glossy. Its color is mostly white, gray and grey-pegi.

The breed of Ushchev dogs was like a pleschevskaya; but only had the following drawbacks: many dogs were white-nosed and with undersized eyes, and some - one eye had a great skill, and the other - small, white and snub. These dogs were unusually fervent, tenacious and excellent under the island, but in the fields far yielded to Tregubovsky and Pleschev. The color of the dog is white with sexual specks on the ears in the form of peas; there were also pogagues."

From this description it is clear that Tregubov dogs could not be called gustops and, undoubtedly, contained the admixture of the Mountain.

In addition to these greyhounds should also mention the dogs of Count Apraxin, Nazariev, Voropanov, Koltovsky, Perkhurov, Prince Chekhdaev, Kostroma landlords Mustafina, Pavlov, who were also famous for their hounds.

Almost all of the designated hunts did not exist by the early 1970s; only the blood of some greyhounds in other owners has been preserved. The following family breeds belong to the modern dogs, which are evident at the beginning of the exhibitions.

Jiharev greyhounds. Retired Major General Aleksandr Jikharev, who died in 1881 at the age of 92, the landowner of the Tambov lip., began to hunt independently in 1815 and led his breed from the aforementioned Lipunov dogs, it was from Satan, light-water-peggo Dos eachi and gray-headed Biyan-ki, distinguished by the length and subtlety of the dog, which in the following generations, however, due to less care became shorter and rougher. In the 60s and 70s, the hunting of Jihareva was mainly famous for mountain greyhounds, which had a small subs of cans, not dogs. The latter undoubtedly had a subsion of mountain, as their ears were dissolved, as well as a subs of Kurland dogs, expressed in the curlyness of the dog of some dogs (Award N. A. Boldarev, etc.). He never exhibited his dogs, but their blood is valued and now in some hunts. In our time, the Schiharev dogs were no longer beautiful and thoroughbred, but were very angry and quite frisky, although not to the extent that they used to be in the 50s and 60s. Much more typical and bloodier were the densely-pop Borisogleb landowner A.S. Vysheslavtsev, who wrote under the pseudonym of the Old Hunter, who led the breed of grandfather clean until the 70s. A somewhat idealized portrait of one of his males was repeatedly placed in hunting magazines. The last member of the Milka breed was tied to one of the Jigarev males; her children were distinguished only by the length of the dog and the gray-pega mast, but were roughheads and had loose ears, although one of them, Shaitan G. A. Chertkova, received on V line. exhibition of a large silver medal.

Назимовские собаки более 40 лет пользовались известностью, как самые злобные. А. В. Назимов, помещик Тверской губ. (Бе­жецкого у.), умерший в 1888 году, держал охоту с 30-х (?) годов. Происхождение его собак довольно темное, по-видимому, они род­ственны борзым тверского помещика Н. Н. Гордеева, славивше­гося до 50-х годов своими злобачами, а также содержали кровь тре-губовских собак, самых богатырских по сложению. Во всяком слу­чае, это собаки мешаные, причем подбор производился только по злобности, а не по красоте, даже не по ладам, почему они не имеют определенного, установившегося типа. По свидетельству некото­рых охотников, имевших назимовских собак, в них была давниш­няя примесь горских собак, почему большая часть борзых имела сравнительно короткую псовину и распущенное ухо, не будучи, однако, чистопсовыми; иногда выраживались и настоящие псовые с длинною псовиной. Судя по грубости и короткости головы, непо­мерной злобности, частой волнистости псовины, надо думать, что Назимов подмешивал изредка и кровь брудастых. Предположение это тем более вероятно, что до самой смерти Назимова у него всегда держались на псарне одна или несколько брудастых борзых. Понятно, что при скрещивании назимовских собак с другими отродьями борзых они хотя утрачивали свои отрицательные каче­ства — грубоголовость, чистопсовость, плохое ухо, — но в боль­шинстве случаев уже не имели прежней беззаветной злобности, т. е. кровь других пород пересиливала кровь мешаных назимов­ских. Одним из немногих исключений был Удав князя Гагарина от мачевариановской суки.

Из всего писаного о назимовских борзых охотниками, их имев­шими, можно действительно заключить, что тип их еще не вполне установился; большею частью они были (по псовине) чистопсовы­ми, вообще ладными, широкими, сухими собаками, на правильных ногах, но с хорошими головами попадались редко; они именно отличались широколобостью, укороченным и заостренным щип­цом, т. е. головою свайкой, особенно развитыми щеками. Вероят­но, это зависело как от подбора собак с мертвою хваткою и очень развитыми мускулами челюстей, так равно и подмеси брудастых.

* Два хобеля и сука были подарены мне, а мною еще 6-месячными щен­ками — Г. А. Черткову, В. А. Шереметеву и (сука Вьюга ) С С Карееву. Последний, кажется, породы от нее не взял, т. к. считал жихаревских бор­зых мешаными.

Хорошие головы с ушами взакладе встречались редко, так же как черные глаза; чаще глаза были небольшие, желтоватые. Окраса бывают всякого, кроме муругого (красного с черным щипцом), что служит косвенным доказательством отсутствия в них крови восточ­ных борзых.

Собаки эти имеют хороший рыск, послушны, даже кротки, не скотинники. Несмотря на то что не отличались псовиетостью, они тем не менее были очень выносливы и даже в 20° мороза, лежа в санях, не дрожали и не ежились. Особенною резвостью не отлича­лись, но изредка между ними выдавались даже лихие собаки. Глав­ное же достоинство их замечалось в злобности до самозабвения: они влеплялись даже в волчью шкуру. Смелые до дерзости, они брали всегда мертво, без отрыва, так крепко, как может брать только кровный бульдог, причем закрывали глаза и опускались всем корпусом. Эта злобность была у них прирожденною, так что молодых собак не было надобности притравливать. Как известно, А. В. Назимов и его соохотники, державшие собак той же породы, охотились главным образом зимою, внаездку, на нескольких санях объезжая волков, заблаговременно приваженных к падали.

Известность назимовских борзых начинается с 50-х годов, и об его черно-пегом Хищном упоминает еще Дриянский в своих «За­писках мелкотравчатого». Но особенною славой пользовались они в семидесятых и восьмидесятых годах, когда большинство охотни­ков предпочитали злобность борзых их резвости и травлю вол­ков — травле русака. Чистокровные борзые этой породы были и, может быть, имеются у А. И. Новикова, А. С. Паскина, Р. С Си-пягина, князя В. В. Мещерского, Л. В. Лихачева, у тульских охот­ников братнев Бибиковых и др. На выставках настоящие кровные назимовские собаки, кажется, йикоща не показывались, что весьма понятно, но на волчьих садках они участвовали неодно­кратно с блестящим успехом*.

Гораздо большее влияние на лады современных псовых имели протасьевские борзые, которые, будучи более ладными, мало усту­пали им в злобности. Помещик Сапожковского у. Рязанской губер­нии Ф. В. Протасьев вел породу от чистопсовых М. А. Траковско-го. По свидетельству племянника Протасьева г. П., в борзых Ф. В. Протасьева имелась примесь английских, сказывавшаяся в бедности псовины, угловатости линий головы, в короткости пра­вила и отчасти в ушах. Сам Протасьев, по-видимому, не подмеши­

* После публикации этой статьи в мартовском номере журнала «При­рода и охота» за 1897 год в майском номере появились замечания А. Нови­кова «По поводу статьи «Русские борзые». См. раздел «Приложения» — Ред.

вал (?) посторонней крови, хотя г. Губин и утверждает, что он перепортил своих собак тем, что переблюл всех своих сук с кобе­лем породы собак какого-то Кареева. Но кареевские собаки были у двоюродного брата Протасьева, велись особо, и сам Ф. В. был слишком высокого мнения о своих собаках, чтобы смешивать их с другими, тем более что он часто говаривал: «Борзые кареевской породы хотя и красивы и злобны, но по ногам далеко не родня нашим»*.

Большая часть протасьевских собак хотя имели чистопсовый тип, но были почти всегда псовистее борзых Траковского; некото­рые собаки, как, например, Опромет е. и. в. великого князя Николая Николаевича и Кидай графа А. Д. Шереметева, могли называться скорее псовыми, чем чистопсовыми. Вообще эта порода пользовалась большою известностью в 60-х и 70-х годах, особенно с того времени, как Протасьевым были проданы графине де Шово (Юсуповой) два кобеля громадного роста за 2000 р. с, производившие фурор в Париже между русскими охотниками, посетителями графини. Кровь протасьевских собак имеется теперь во многих охотах, а именно: у Н. А. Болдарева, гр. Строганова, П. Н. Белоусова, которым была куплена у М. А. Траковского зна­менитая Быстра.

Еще большее значение для псовых охотников в последнее два­дцатилетие имели мачевариановские собаки, едва ли не самые лад­ные и красивые современные русские борзые, не имевшие, однако, типичных признаков псовых, так как они заключали не особенно давнюю подмесь горских. По словам самого П. М. Мачевариа-нова**, порода ведется им от своих (?) собак, трегубовских, нау-мовских и салтыковских. В конце сороковых годов он, задавшись целью дать своим псовым большую ширину ладов и более силы в скачке, впустил в породу кровь горских борзых А. В. Жихарева и А. А. Столыпина (Фоблаза Белякова, подаренного последнему Жихаревым). Полуторки вязались затем с чистокровными псовы­ми, и таким образом им была выведена особая разновидность псо­вых, отличавшаяся красотою головы, большими навыкате глаза­ми, чрезвычайною шириной зада, не вполне правильными (не вза-тяжке) ушами, сравнительно негустою и недлинною псовиною и правилом вокороть. Собаки эти славились (с 50-х годов) в Симбир­ской и соседних губерниях необычайною резвостью, но не отлича­

* Н. А. Кареев писал, что отцом его А. Н. Были проданы Протасьеву 3 кобеля, в том числе знаменитый черно-пегий Хищный (назимовской поро­ды). Что у Протасьева встречались собаки очень псовые и даже в завитках, видно из слов В. Насонова («Пр. и охота», 1892 г., июль). ** «Ж. охоты», 1876 г., июль.

лись злобностью и были небольшого роста. В семидесятых годах они уже настолько измельчали и выродились, что Мачеварианов был вынужден в 1873 году искать для продолжения породы род­ственных им производителей и обратился с этой целью к арзамас­скому помещику Н. П. Ермолову.

Ермоловские собаки мало отличались от мачевариановских, так как имели аналогичное происхождение, заключали ту же кровь, хотя, может быть, имели еще более древнюю родословную. Мы видели выше, что еще у прадеда Н. П. Ермолова были (в 1776 г.) замечательные по красоте и резвости серо-пегие псовые (густопсовые?). Прадед же Ермолова вел породу от собак своего прадеда, так что собаки велись в одном роду без подмеси других (не псовых) пород почти два столетия — факт в охотничьих летописях беспримерный. Только дед Н. П. Ермолова, достав горского кобе­ля, завел мешаных собак. Вторично кровь горок подмешана к породе в 1851 году. Именно через полугорского кобеля Любима I (от чистокровного горского кобеля Яненко и псовой Летки Н. Н. Ермолова). Затем в 1860 году порода быДа подновлена тре-губовской Славой, а в 1869 мачевариановской Алмазной. С 1873 года Н. П. Ермолов и П. М. Мачеварианов вели уже одну общую породу.

После смерти Мачеварианова в 1880 году и Ермолова в 1889 г. собаки их рассеялись по всей России, и теперь мало найдете охот, не заключающих крови этих борзых. Но чистокровных мачевариа­новских или ермоловских, кажется, ни у кого не ведется*; всего ближе к; этой породе борзые П. Ф. Филатова, содержащие очень много крови мачевариановских собак.

Кроме этих угасших и смешавшихся между собою и другими псовыми отродий следует упомянуть о собаках Каракозова, Лиха­рева, Ратаева, Ступишина, Назарьева, Воропанова. Борзые Кара­козова (Аткарского уезда) отличались ростом, шириною склада, коротким, сравнительно толстым щипцом и недлинною сравни­тельно псовиною; они в особенности славились злобностью; мно­гие за русаком вовсе не скакали. Из них знаменитый Космач (не с подмесью ли курляндской псовой или брудастой?) догонял вугон старого голодного волка и брал его в одиночку. Лихаревские собаки были настоящими густопсовыми старого типа, что доказы­вает Поражай Перепелкина на выставке, очень похожий на рису­нок густопсовой Вышеславцева. По мнению некоторых, лихарев­ские псовые происходят от прежних кареевских борзых. Ратаев,

* После смерти Н. П. Ермолова лучших производителей: знаменитых Кару и Сердечного, а также Проказу, Смелого и Славу, приобрел П. Н. Бе­лоусов и до сих пор имеет несколько чистокровных ермоловских.

бывший управляющим императорской охоты, помещик Романов­ского уезда Ярославской губернии, известен охотникам главным образом по Злодейке, кровь которой имеется в весьма многих сов­ременных борзых, но Злодейка, кажется, происходила не от его собак, так как вся охота была продана им еще в 1852 году*. Н. Д. Ступипшн (Сергиевские минеральные воды) имел до 80-х годов замечательно типичных густопсовых, происходивших из зна­менитой некогда (в 40-х годах?) демидовской охоты в Сиверцах (Петербургской губернии). Последние ступишинские борзые вме­сте с близкими к ним (?) по виду назарьевскими собаками были при­обретены недавно умершим П. Ф. Дурасовым в 1888 году. Кровь воропановских псовых, тоже весьма замечательных по красоте и резвости, сохранилась (?) в собаках П. Долинского.

Все эти разновидности можно считать исчезнувшими, так ска­зать, растворившимися в других породах. В настоящее время вслед­ствие выставок, удобства сообщений все псовые охотники успели перезнакомиться между собою и вряд ли можно найти у кого-либо борзых, которые велись бы в чистоте, без прибавления крови дру­гих неродственных собак в течение 20, даже 10 лет. Большинство современных борзых приобрели общий тип, который можно наз­вать современной псовой, то есть все породы и разновидности, перемешавшись между собою, были как бы приведены к одному знаменателю. Исчезли следы густопсовой, главным образом узкая глубокая грудь, плоские ребра, длинная волнистая, тем более кудрявая псовина, унаследованная от курляндских псовых, вымер­ших много ранее; все эти признаки замечаются теперь у немногих собак в виде исключения, по закону атавизма, вспоминая породу. Не стало вовсе чистопсовых борзых как английского, так восточ­ного происхождения, хотя на юге России псовые всегда получают укороченную псовину. Кончились бестолковые скрещивания псо­вых с вислоушками, и вместе с тем прекратились робкие попытки реставрации отжившей свой век густопсовой, в ее несколько кари­катурном виде. Все русские борзые получили общий, довольно однообразный, но еще неопределенный (?) вид и отличаются между собою, собственно говоря, только большею или меньшею красотою, большею или меньшею грубостью форм, что зависит не столько от вкусов владельца, сколько от того, предпочитается ли им резвость злобности или наоборот. Весьма сомнительно, чтобы в каком-нибудь уголке России могли уцелеть псовые до сих пор неизвестной породы, т. е. разновидности без примеси крови собак мачевариано-ермоловских, протасьевских, жихаревских и в осо-бенности кареевских.

* См. публикацию в «Моск. ведом.», 1852 г., № 143. Продавались 17 гончих и 20 борзых.

Из современных борзых наибольшее распространение, если не известность, имеют протасьевско-ермоловско-кареевские, имен­но собаки С. С. Кареева (племянника знаменитого охотника А, Н. Кареева), хотя последние вследствие частых подмесей менее кровны, чем собаки Н. А. Кареева (сына А. Н. Кареева, охота которого была воспета Дриянским), Другова, В. Н. Чебышова, С. А. Барышникова и князя Д. Б. Голицына, охотников, умевших вовремя остановиться и сохранить в породе своих собак преоблада­ние крови старинных кареевских собак. Успех борзых С. С. Каре­ева объясняется прежде всего тем, что они оказались на первых 

Рис. 7. Наян, русская псовая борзая А. Н. Кареева («Журнал охоты» А. Е. Корта, 1890, №3)

выставках единственными собаками, близкими к старому густопсо­вому типу, имели очень большой рост и длинную псовину, а также умением владельца, нашедшего в них источник немалых доходов. Когда же охотники перестали увлекаться длиною псовины и лещеватостью и познакомились с борзыми другого, более силь­ного типа— протасьевскими и мачевариано-ермоловскими, то С. С. Кареев первый, чтобы улучшить свою породу, уже начав­шую вырождаться, стал прибавлять в нее кровь других собак.

По-видимому, родоначальники собак С. С. Кареева — Наян и Вихра, от которых он повел породу, не были чистокровными каре­евскими, которые едва ли не происходят от собак князя Барятин­ского, близкого родственника по женской линии деда С. Кареева. Обе собаки, во всяком случае суки, были полукровными кареев-скими, и Вихра принадлежала сначала Коробьину, а Наян Лиха­реву (см. выше)*. Эти два производителя дали целый ряд выда­ющихся собак, обращавших общее внимание на первых пяти мос­ковских очередных выставках. Громадный, 19-вершковый Побе­дим С. С. Кареева, Награждай и Наградка Чебышова, Раскида Типольта были на них бесспорно лучшими представителями рус­ских борзых и более других приближались к старинному типу гус-


  Рис. 8. Современная псовая. Наградка В. Н. Чебышова («Охотничий календарь»)


* Коробьин («Пр. и охота», 1885, апрель) доказывает, что Вихра проис­ходит от Злодея Иванчина и Вьюги А. Н. Кареева, которая тоже была полукровной, так как родилась от суки Бабина и кареевского кобеля. Наян был сын лихаревского Похвала и Проказки А. Н. Кареева. Н. А. Кареев отвечал на эту заметку, что Наян происходит от Проказки и Награждая отцовских собак и что отец только давал Наяна Лихареву для породы. Позднее Корш говорил, что Злодей, отец Вихры, был мосоловских собак, однопородных с свечинскими, а Вьюга, мать Вихры, от кареевского Карая и суки другой породы (Бабина), принадлежала Н. В. Лихареву, соседу А. Н. Кареева, не имевшему будто других собак, кроме кареевских.

tops. But already in the handsome Karay Kartavtseva was affected by the degeneration of the breed due to close kinship, expressed in a complete lack of energy. This fact probably prompted C C Kareev, as an experienced dog breeder-practitioner, to look for suitable producers for blood refreshment. First he was taken litter from Bnyakovsky's Undaida (see below), then from the Military Predator; but these litters were not particularly successful, and Kareev settled on the Rataev lame Villain. The latter gave him and others from the blood-beary kareev males a lot of very good dogs, but gave most of them its slobbering and murugo-peg color. The origin of the Villain and the brother of her Sorcerer, who was at the 1st regular exhibition, is rather dark, th it can be found out, probably, in the archives of the imperial hunt. S. Kareev said at first that the Villain was a breed of Domogatsky, who led the breed from the dogs of Kareev's grandfather Prince Baryatinsky, implicitly hinting that the Villain is also akin to The Karelian. He later claimed that it came from the dogs of a P., the landowner of one of the black-earth counties, all whose dogs entered the imperial hunt. Improved Kareev dogs were successful, but it seems that S. S Kareev, due to the high demand selling expensive prices of the best producers, was not able to properly lead the breed, and it has now lost its typical signs and growth. Of the former Karelian greyhounds, the most purebred is now preserved in the dog hunt of P. N. Belousov: it is Victory, daughter of the famous Swan S. A. Baryshnikov and Ice, originating from the famous Lubka (evil honey) and Amisky (ash honey). Detailed Victory certificate from the owner.

Other owners of modern canines should point to N.A. Brdarev, Prince D. B. Golitsyn, V. N. Chebyshov, N.V. Mazharov, Prince N. M. Vadbolsky, Chelishchev, P. F. Filatov, P. N. Korotnev, A. A. Durnovo, P. N. Belousova, N. N. Bibikov, and others.

The history of Moscow's regular exhibitions, partly the garden - is the history of modern greyhounds, and very instructive. We see how consistently, one by one, the representatives of the main varieties are shown to them, as then the corifes of the exhibitions were the main producers and newers

The answer to N.A. Khomyakov. "Pr. and hunting," 1885, July, "Pr. hunting," 1892,August, p. 113.

the blood of other greyhounds, who began to be born due to the conduct in close kinship, as gradually the main varieties lost thoroughbred, not always improving on appearance and field qualities.

At the first regular exhibition (1874-75) there were, in fact, representatives of three certain varieties of canines - Kareev, Belkin and Jiharevskaya, as the origin of the greyhounds of the king's pack remained unknown. The dogs of the Karelian breed, exhibited by S.S. Kareev, V.N. Chebyshov and A.A. Tipolt, prevailed. They paid general attention to beauty, growth, dog, but all had loose paws: a long, piled on the side of the rule and a relatively weak ass. A huge 19-year-old will win Kareev, who received a big silver. medal, was, moreover, a besled. Red-Pegi Award Chebyshova, awarded a gold medal (never more than a dog at Moscow exhibitions) and recognized as the best representative of the Kareev breed and canine in general, had a somewhat short neck and a small squat, was flattered and narrow. In fairness, Rascida Tipolta was prettier and more correct: she had an excellent head and big eyes, but a short rule and a relatively short dog; there was something pure, but its main drawback was the male stats, i.e. the shortness of the pad.

Of the other greyhounds deserved attention Award N. A. Bol-Darev (b. ser. honey) jiharev breed, distinguished by working frets, dog in curls, roughness of the head and showed a remarkable malice in the garden. His original dog, which confused some imaginary connoisseurs, came from, obviously, from impurity, perhaps distant, Kurland dog or Kurland brudast; but certainly not a sheepdog in any way. In the seventies, greyhounds were not yet a particularly rare rarity and met, for example, in the hunts of Nazimov, Gubin, Pizyinov, zapolsky, etc.

Similarly, they gave the impression of excellent field dogs pure-pop burmaty Karai and a young red-peg, dog-okay V. Mazharov, who also received large silver medals; Karai turned out to be a dog of outstanding malice. In all the Mazharov greyhounds, the recent impurity of the Crimean, expressed in loose ears, is very noticeable. His majesty's pack was very elegant, but not the same. Black-and-pegy Amiable, stalwart and beautiful male, very different from the water-peggo, even more doggy and wonderfully long Swan, and the red-pegy Sorcerer (brother of the mentioned Villain) was given downcloth and the head was similar to the Mazhavinsky Twist, but had the best eyes.

The second exhibition was somewhat more diverse. In addition to very sweet - Kareev's Award with good eyes and correct ears (silver. medal), Chebyshov's award with a few loose ears (small silver, medal) and a few coarse-headed and low-eyed Nayan (b. ser. honey) Chebishov - was issued in particular by the zhlad of Prince Cherkassky. This wonderfully properly composed male, the best representative of the breed of pureps, received a bolip. Silver. Honey, although on points came to the gold, came from the dogs of M.A. Trakovsky and was somewhat akin to pro-Shufflian greyhounds. Little inferior to the Glorad in beauty Ugar Tumanovsky (b. sulfur honey), a dog on frets, but poorly dressed, a wonderfully correct male with a great head and eyes and quite correctly tightened ear, as in ancient thick-shouldered. Unfortunately, both males disappeared without a trace as producers, at least their offspring at exhibitions was not shown. In this respect, the grey-peg predatory Vojkov dogs, which belonged to his imperial highness to the great Prince Nikolai Nikolaevich (b. ser. honey), although he yielded to The Hunger and Ugaru, brought more benefits, as it was taken from Kareev litter. This very elegant, but poorly dressed male came from the Jiharev-praise, the father of the Boldarevsky Award, and from the dog D. M. Elagin.

In the following year (1877) nothing new and outstanding was exhibited. There were many dogs of the Karelian breed, shown by A.N. Kareev, V.V. Friends and others. D.T. Kanshi-na greyhounds, although in many ways superior to the Kareev, had very little influence on the breed and disappeared almost without a trace along with the death of the owner two years later. (However, according to N.A. Boldarev, there are 3 beautiful males from P.N. Belousov.)

At the 4th regular exhibition, organized on the occasion of the war only in January 1879, a great revival in the world of dog hunters was introduced by the Shufflian dogs, sold after the death of F. V. Protasiev in different hands. Particular attention was paid to the water-pegi Opromet of his imperial highness of the Great Prince Nikolai Nikolaevich (bolip. silver. honey), with excellent legs, a few bald head, good gla-zami and well-dressed, even in curls; then chubaro-pegi Kidai

According to Kashkarov, the glorad originated (from the paternal side) from Cherkes (above) Atryganev; it was from The of Trakovsky and Byrdin's male, the murgoy Mars 11, which seemed to be very similar.

Count A. D. Sheremeteva, a very posture male, very sweet, with a good head, but poorly dressed and generally pure-double in shapes. Other pro-Shufflian dogs, turning off the defeating Bol-Darev, did not represent anything remarkable. Dog hunters sharply divided into two camps: some admired the pro-shuffle-Ovestov and Kidai, thoroughly pointing out the immaculateness of their working frets; others praised Karay Kartavtsev, the son of the Award-winning Chebishov. Karay was really wonderfully beautiful and even had an overly thin and graceful head for a male. But his hind legs were cow's, and his paws, like most Karelian dogs, were round, feline. In addition, later it turned out that he was completely devoid of energy and malice, caught in the hunt, galloped badly, and after each baiting his front legs trembled; in addition, it was infertile. Fascinated by the Karelian and pro-Tasiev dogs, the hunters almost did not notice the quail-pibarago striking dashing-rev dogs. It was a medium-sized rather wide and powerful male on good legs, with a very low-slated rib, a rather dry head, with beautiful eyes, richly dressed, in curls. It was not at any exhibition, and it was very strange that it was awarded only a small silver medal, which was probably the reason that it was not launched by the manufacturer. The unseen, i.e. small, though very sweet pure-pop - Snake and Mytarka - the best of chelishchev dogs did not pay attention.

The fifth exhibition is remarkable in that it for the first time there are very successful products of crossbreeding of different varieties. With S Kareev, convinced of the need to refresh the blood of his dogs, finally stopped at the Rataev Villain, the sister of The Sorcerer. The villain, as opposed to his brother, who gave though wonderfully sweet and unusually wide-thused dogs, but kutsyh, turned out to be a wonderful producer. The best representative of the improved Kareev dogs was the red-pegi (murugo-pegi?) by the Chebishov Wizard from his Award, very similar to his uncle and quite deserved to be awarded a large silver medal. Half-blooded Karelian dogs - the pologany-pegy Nayan Kareeva (from Togia and the Villain), Lyubi Chebyshova (from The Award and villains), Will Win II Kareev (from Victory I and the Khomyakovsky Awards) - also received great silver. Medals. The highlight of the exhibition was, however, late

The strikingness was summed up by his imperial highness to the great Prince Nikolai Nikolaevich.

At the St. Petersburg Exhibition of 1878.

Cited on the show and the examination is therefore not exposed to Udav Udav hn. P.S. Gagarin (Nizhekim lip.) from the Machevarian-Doveka and the male baron Yomini Nazimov's dogs. It was really a very good-looking and spiteful male, of very large stature (18th, extremely well-built, with a great head, but a coarse dog. At the same exhibition was shown G.A. Chertkov very good male Shaytan (b. sulfur honey.) From Milka Viseslavtsev and the Jiharev dog, who gave him a rough head.

Blood Machevarian dogs, which have long been famous among Nizhny Novgorod, Simbir, Penzen and other hunters, appeared only the following year, after the death of P. M. Macevarianov (1880), first the ulcer, shown in the autumn of 1880 in Tambov at the exhibition of the Tambov Department of the Imperial Society (VI), then on the VI of the line. exhibition in Moscow Ube N. A. Boldareva, a red male of short stature, like all Machevarian dogs, with excellent head, eyes and ears, dog in curls. Both dogs received the right big silver medals. At the VII exhibition there were black with underpnage greyhounds P.A. Bereznikova, shortly before who entered the imperial hunt. All 12 dogs were fairly typical pure dogs, some of them had loose ears. For the same type they were given a gold medal. Karai, Terzai and Lubka Verderevsky, who received a large silver medal separately and for the pack, stood out from the thoroughbred Karelian. Of the Karelian improved, the villain of the 2nd S.S. Kareev (from Tohray and the Ratayev's Villain) was remarkable, receiving a bol. Sir. Honey. AT THE VI and VII exhibitions; it is a muscular and poorly dressed bitch, very sweet and showing remarkable friskyness and great spite. The b. ser were also very good. medals of The Gift and Fire of V. N. Chebyshov from The Defeating Kareev and the Rataev Villain and very similar to her; Also The Villain Kn. Gagarin from the Karelian Victory I and villains II and his own Dear from Udav and Kareev Villain II, which combined, therefore, the blood of the Machevarian, Nazim, Kareev dogs and Rataev villain, which was very similar. The large hunt, exhibited by the young hunter V.I. Likhachev, consisted mainly of the blood (?) and half-blood dogs sold to him by Kareev and half-blooded dogs and very ordinary pure-pop greyhounds, bought from Yaroslavl hunters - Dedyulin and Trutnev.

* Подарен мною щенком.

** Поражай сын Терзая и Вихры; Терзай от Старого Наяна н той же Вихры.

Значительное количество собак, родственных мачеварианов-ским, появилось лишь на следующей, VIII выставке, именно ермо-ловские и филатовские. Все они отличались отличными головами и глазами, сухими ногами, шириною склада, были очень однотипны, но мелки ростом, бедно одеты и имели укороченное правило. Луч­шими из ермоловских оказались: муруго-пегий Карай, самый рослый изо всех (16У2), с небольшою прилобью, получивший только малую сер. медаль, и его однопометница красно-пегая Кара*, едва ли не самая красивая и ладная сука изо всех бывших на выставках, не исключая типольтовской Раскиды и Наградки Каре­ева. Она получила большую сер. медаль. Из собак П. Ф. Филатова очень хороши были Черкай (от мачевариановского Данъяра) и в особенности сука Тамара**. На этой же выставке Н. В. Мажаров показал потомство своего Выручая (от Лиходейки) — Милку и Красотку, черных с подпалинами сук, очень ладных и несомненно лучших изо всех мажаровских собак и заслуживавших больших сер. медалей. Борзые Д. С. Сипягина и Ф. А. Свечина, происходившие главным образом от назимовских, по виду не представляли ничего замечательного, но некоторые из них (особенно Туман Свечина) выказали на садке замечательную злобность. Большая охота графа А. Д. Шереметева, занимавшая, подобно прошлогодней лихачевской, значительную часть манежа, была составлена глав­ным образом из потомков протасьевских собак, именно Кидая, не выходивших из уровня посредственности.

На IX опять первенствовали борзые Ермолова, Филатова и М. В. Столыпина, тоже мачевариановские. На ней кроме очень хорошей и кровной суки Удачи Н. П. Ермолов показал результат не особенно удачного скрещивания мачевариано-назимово-кареев-ских собак, именно Гордеца, происходящего от Удава и гагарин-ской Злодейки (см. выше). Большой интерес представили многочи­сленные борзые, выставленные П. Ф. Дурасовым, происходившие частою от полумачевариановской суки, царских Лебедя и Любез­ного (см. 1-ю очер. выставку) и Нахала Ратаева (от Чародея и Зло­дейки, т. е. брата и сестры). Позднее Дурасовым были приобре­тены от Ступишина (см. выше) 2 кобеля и сука демидовских собак густопсового типа и куплены несколько борзых у сына известного симбирского охотника Н. В. Назарьева, славившегося своими соба­ками и имевшего также знаменитых плещеевских псовых.

На X очередной выставке лучшими псовыми были: Порхай и Победка князя Д. Б. Голицына (от Подара Чебышова и ратаевской

* По мнению Н. А. Болдарева, бывшая на XXI выставке Дивна П. Н. Белоусова по костяку и мощности сложки выше Кары.

** Родоначальниками филатовских собак были мачевариановские красно-пегий Кролик, черно-пегий Даньяр и полово-пегая Польза.

Злодейки), Сердечный* Н. П. Ермолова, получившие большие сер. медали, и Барышникова кровный кареевский Лебедь, один из выдающихся представителей породы, почему-то удостоенный только малой серебряной медали.

На XI выставке Ермолов показывал уже других мешаных собак — детей своей Кары и болдаревского Карая (от протасьев-ского Поражая), но кровь протасьевских собак, хотя увеличила рост ермоловских, но придала им много грубости. Н. А. Болдарев выставил 4-х кобелей, 3-х от Поражая, в том числе очень ладного Алмаза (б. сер. мед.). Д. Б. Голицын показал 4-х собак от Подара Чебышова (см. выше) и Русалки Кареева (дочери Хищного Воей­кова и кареевской Наградки); из них выдавались Русалка, с неболь­шой прилобиной (болып. сер. мед.) и Резвый (м. сер. мед.). Луч­шею собакою выставки был, однако, упомянутый выше полово-пегий Лебедь С. А. Барышникова (от Пылая Кареева и чебышов-ской Наградки), получивший уже бол. сер. медаль, так же как и мало уступавшая ему однопометница Вихра.

Следующие две выставки отличались многочисленностью и разнообразием представителей новых разновидностей псовых. Все собаки XII выставки были смешанного происхождения. Из них новыми для посетителей явились борзые Д. П. Вальцова и К. Н. Болдарева. Первый выставил 8 собак, большею частию от своей Подруги и мачевариано-ермоловских кобелей. Подруга никогда не бывала на выставках, но пользовалась довольно широ­кою известностью, как замечательно резвая, злобная и ладная сука**. Однако большая часть ее потомства отличалась малосогну­тыми задними ногами, которые давал, кажется, протасьевский (болдаревский) Поражай. Лучшими были Поспех (б. сер. мед.), из сук — Колпица (б. сер. мед.). Родственное происхождение и те же недостатки имели собаки К. Н. Болдарева, из которых лучший — Подар (от Поражая и Подруги), получил большую серебр. медаль. Собаки А. И. Храповицкого тоже родственны вальцовским, т. к. происходят от сто Лезгинки (полумачевариановской). Н. П. Ермо­лов, в свою очередь, показал 7 собак, родственных вальцов-

* Сердечный был после смерти Ермолова приобретен П. Н. Белоусо-вым, в охоте которого был производителем.

** По Озерову, Д. П. Вальцов ведет свою породу от Подруги, протась-евского Поражая и полумачевариановской Лезгинки; затем им была снова впущена кровь протасьевских — через Кидая л ермолово-мачеварианов-ских, через (?) Лукавку Ермолова. Подруга, родоначальница многих совре­менных псовых, полукровная (полуанглийская от собак князя Д. Д. Обо­ленского, который имел англичан и псовых) назимовская, от его Пылая и Сиротки, дочери Сверкая Бахтинского и свечинской Душеньки. Лез­гинка — дочь мачевариановской Блошки и Нахала ивашкинских собак.

ским, именно Карая II от Подруги и Поражая и 6 молодых от этого Карая и своей Кары, но ни одна не выдавалась из среднего уровня. Впоследствии сам Ермолов сознавался, что Карай оказался плохим производителем. Самою выдающеюся собакою этой выставки была Сударка Гагарина, впоследствии Глебова (б. сер. мед.), от Удава и Злодейки II (см. выше), лучшее, что дал Удав, от которого, как мешаного кобеля, получалось потомство с довольно разнообразными наружными и внутренними качествами.

XIII выставка отличалась многочисленностью борзых (107) и количеством новых молодых экспонентов. Из прежних Н. А. Бол-даревым приведено было 7 собак, большею частию от протасьев­ских и полупротасьевских кобелей и ермоловских сук. Из них три, в том числе Алмаз, уже были на прежних выставках; из молодых же лучшею оказалась Кара, дочь Карая II и Кары Ермолова. Последний прислал 5 собак по первой осени; из них 3 однопомет­ника Кары Болдарева получили порознь малые серебряные и боль­шую серебряную медаль за свору; самому же заводчику за правиль­ное ведение породы был выдан ценный приз (в первый раз). Все эти собаки по красоте форм уступали прежним кровным ермолов-ским и мачевариановскими, выигрывая лишь в росте и полевых качествах (?). Прежний тип этих собак более всего сохранили отличные суки П. Н. Коротнева Радость и Юла от ермоловского Сердечного и Наглы владельца (от ермоловского Козыря). Очень удачным продуктом скрещивания обновленных кареевских собак с мачевариановскими явилась сука Заноза (мал. сер. мед.) А. Ф. Ва­сильева от Подара кн. Д. Б, Голицына и Летки Филатова. Соб­ственно мачевариановскйй тип на выставке сохранен был только П. Ф. Филатовым, замечательно красивый кобель которого Соболь был лучшим кобелем и вполне заслуживал присужденную ему награду (б. сер. мед.). Прочие собаки, за исключением Груби­яна А. В. Шумовского (от борзых Н. В. Мажарова), сохранившего тип гейеровских, имели еще более сложное происхождение и заключали в себе кровь протасьевских, ермоловских, жихаревских собак и вальцовской Подруги. Большая часть собак, выставленных Н. И. Сорохтиным, — от Варвара своих собак (4-я очер. выст.) и сук Вальцова и Шумовского; лучшим был, однако, Зверь от Хва­тая М. В. Столыпина (мачевариановского?) и Зацепы Шумовско­го. Борзые (6) Г. О. Немировского от собак Мачеварианова, Гага­рина и Вальцова не представляли ничего замечательного. Из 8 бор­зых И. В. Иваненкова от собак Вальцова и Болдарева лучшею была очень рослая, но чистопсовая по псовине Милка (б. сер. мед.). Из 12 собак К. В. Шиловского, происходивших от мешаных жихаревских, протасьевских и вальцовских, достойна внимания Победа (бол. сер. мед.). Лучшею из озеровских была бурматная

Голубка (бол. сер. мед.) от Данъяра и Сайги Вальцова, затем отец ее — черный Даньяр (от Араба, сына Удава и Злодейки кн. Гагари­на, и Лезгинки Вальцова). Аналогичное происхождение имели и борзые (3) А. И. Храповицкого, т. е. также от собак Вальцова. Из них чубарый Марс, молодой кобель по 1-й осени, получил бол. сер. медаль. Как видно, на этой выставке преобладало потомство валь-цовских и болдаревских собак, о происхождении которых говори­лось выше.

На XIV выставке выдавались и преобладали мешаные ермолов-ские. Из них лучшею была Серна Н. П. Ермолова от его Сердеч­ного (см. выше) и коротневской Наглы (дочери ермоловского Козыря) — замечательно ладная сука с отличною головой и совер^ шенно правильным закладом ушей, но очень сиротливая. Она получила большую серебряную медаль и была куплена за очень дорогую цену молодым охотником И. Т. Долинским. П. Н. Корот-нев выставил Крылата (от Дорогого Болдарева и своей Наглы), грубого и несколько горбатого кобеля, впрочем, лучшего на выставке (бол. серебр. медаль) и купленного в Англию для Уэль-слея за 400 р. с. Очень хороша была также Ведьма кн. Д. Б. Голи­цына (б. сер. мед.) от Щеголя Ермолова и Змейки кн. Д. Б. Голи­цына, Утеха Н. А. Болдарева (от Карая Ни ермоловской Кары), не подвергавшаяся экспертизе, затем Раскида И. П. Соколова (от Атамана Болдарева и Подруги II Вальцова). Шиловский выставил 10 собак, родственных болдаревским и вальцовским и большею частью уже известных. Борзые Инсарского происходили от гага-ринских собак; близкое с ними происхождение имели столыпин­ская Наградка (м. сер. мед.) и большая часть борзых Г. О. Неми-ровского. Наконец, И. Т. Долинским выставлено было 14 собак от кареевских с подмесью мачевариановских, отчасти воропановских; лучшею из них признавалась Вьюга, чистокровная кареевская от Победила I и Наградки, одна из лучших сук кареевской породы, с совершенно правильными задними ногами (бол. сер. мед.). Очень хороша была также Леда (бол. серебр. мед.), от Любезного Каре­ева и Любки Вердеревского.

Начиная с XV-ой, московские очередные выставки начинают, видимо, приходить в упадок и терять свой интерес для псовых охот­ников. Эта выставка была особенно бедна борзыми, и едва ли не лучшими на ней были полуермоловские собаки г-на Панова, из которых Даньяр (от Озорника своих собак и ермоловской Кары) получил на XV и XVI выставках малую серебряную медаль, на выставке же 1889 года в Петербурге — большую серебряную.

На XVI выставке также большая часть борзых были меша­ные — ермоловские и гагаринские. Вдовой Н. П. Ермолова, умер­шего в 1889 г., выставлены четыре ничем не замечательные собаки и приведена для продажи вся охота — около 30 борзых. Лучшими оказались П. Н. Коротнева Блистай (от его Крылата и Проказы Ермолова) с торчащими, как у лайки, ушами (б. сер. мед.) и Швы­рок от Грубияна Черткова и своей Наглы, получивший только малую серебряную, и однопометник его — Удар Корша (м. сер. мед.). Очень хорош был Алмаз М. В. Столыпина, по-видимому им родственный. Инсарский выставил 5 недурных борзых от гагарин-ских, б. ч. уже бывших на предыдущей выставке; Филатов — 3-х, из которых лучшая, Зазноба, получила малую серебряную. Бор­зые (6) К. В. Шиловского от своих, болдаревских и вальцовских, не подвергавшиеся экспертизе, ничего особенного не представляли; то же собаки (5) С. М. Шульгина (жихаревских и болдаревских кро­вей), кроме Победки (м. сер. мед.). Назимовская порода имела представителей в лице трех очень грубых собак Е. Е. Чевакинско-го. Улучшенных кареевских выставил Г. Н. Вельяминов, получив­ший за свору из 3 борзых большую серебряную; но в них кроме крови Злодейки Ратаева имелась еще кровь Поражая Перепелкина (см. выше) и Хищного Воейкова. Завладай Максимова, получив­ший только бронзовую медаль, замечателен тем, что, несмотря на короткие ноги вопрямь, на московских осенних садках 1890 года взял 1-й приз на резвость. Он происходил от чебышовских (меша­ных) Наяна и Неги. Из новых собак замечательны были борзые П. И. Шехавцова, однопометники от своих (кажется, с примесью озеровских или вальцовских) собак. Лучший из них — чубаро-пегий Сокол получил большую серебряную медаль (два осталь­ных — малую, а вся свора — большую) и был куплен И. Т. Долин­ским за 1 ООО рублей.

Следующая (XVII) выставка опять была бедна количественно (60 экз.) и качественно. Первенствовали болдаревские собаки (7), из которых Пылай и Атаман получили большие серебряные. Пылай, по 1-й осени, 18 верш., от Подара (б. сер. мед. на XII выст.) и Завлады (от Алмаза — б. сер. на XI и Колпицы — б. сер. мед. на XII выставке). Очень хороши были родственные болдарев-ским борзые Шиловского, особенно Блистай и Лукавка Е. П. Шиловской (от болдаревских кобелей и вальцовских сук), проданные Медведеву за 1500 руб. Удар Корша (см. XVI выст.) удостоен был, как один из лучших кобелей, большой серебряной медали. Из собак новых экспонентов заслуживали внимания бор­зые (3) Курдюмова, О. И. Улагай (4, в особенности серо-пегая Бур­ка) и А. П. Кожевникова от Азиата Жихарева и своих собак; луч­ший из них —Лиходей, с плохими передними ногами и закркжова-тым правилом, получил малую серебряную медаль.

На XVIII выставке из мешаных мачевариано-ермоловских бор­зых были выставлены только 2 суки П. Н. Коротневым и 5 собак

Г. Н. Коротневым; из них лучшею оказалась сука первого — Хан­ка, имевшая, однако, сильно распахнутую грудь, т. е. широкий постанов передних ног, что служит плохою приметою для резвос­ти. Б. Инсарский показал 5 собак, прямых потомков гагаринских; П. В. Ладыженский— Удачу (мал. сер. мед.), внучку Удава, очень ладную, но грубоголовую суку неприятного окраса и с грубой псо­виной. Борзые В. А. Гевлич — от филатовских и соловцовских собак — очень грубые, но крепко сложенные, имели уже подмесь кареевских. Большинство, именно борзые (10) князя Б. А. Василь-чикова, Вердеревского (8), Г. И. Кристи (5) и князя Д. Б. Голицы­на, происходили от улучшенных кареевских. Из собак первого экс­понента выделялись Похвал и Лиходей (бол. сер. медали). Более типичны были голицынские Награждай и Победа, внуки чебышов-ского Награждая и ратаевской Злодейки, от которой ими унасле­дован грязный окрас и прилобь (у Победы); обе собаки получили бол. сер. медали. Г. И. Кристи выставил очень хороших сук — Злоимку и Злодейку (от кареевского Атамана), удостоенных той же награды. Серо-пегие собаки Д. Н. Вердеревского, хотя значи­лись чистокровными (?) кареевскими, не представляли ничего осо­бенного.

Некоторое оживление в мире псовых охотников, обескуражен­ных упадком выставок и победами английских борзых на испыта­ниях резвости, было внесено выставкой Киевского отдела Импера­торского общества охоты, на которой приняли участие многие южные охотники, не участвовавшие на московских выставках. Особенно замечательного, однако, ничего не было, и на ней преоб­ладали борзые от озеровских, вальцовских и болдаревских собак, родственные между собою. Наибольший интерес представляла охота князя Д. И. Ширинского-Шихматова, состоявшая из 16 собак, б. ч. от озеровских сук и кобелей; лучшим был Поражай (от озеровской Стрелки и Поражая И. Т. (?) Долинского), получив­ший малую сер. медаль отдела и большую от Общества любителей породистых собак; недурны были суки Слава и Сударка (от тех же собак) и Искра (от Голубки Озерова и Лебедя В. П. Глебова), которым также присуждены малые серебряные. Из борзых С. М, Канивальского, б. ч. мешаных озеровских с ермоловскими, луч­шею была Голубка,(м. сер. мед.), а из 5 собак М. А. Цветкова, мешаных озеровских, ермоловских и чебышовских, выделялась Сайга от Любима Чебышова и Сайги Озерова. Н. А. Болдарев показал 3 собак, из которых Алмаз и Поражай (м. сер. медали) уже были на московских выставках. Только собаки (7) барона Штейн-геля принадлежали к улучшенной кареевской породе. Из них 5 получили малые сер. медали, но наибольшего внимания заслужи­вала Раскида с очень красивою головою. Сам С. С. Кареев выста­вил только весьма интересную помесь арабского слюги с псовой — очень изящного кобеля Белъбая в типе старинных английских, т. е. хортого, который был приобретен г. Цветковым. Продолжал ли последний опыты дальнейшего скрещивания — неизвестно. Несом­ненно, что небольшая подмесь слюги к псовым была бы им очень полезна.

Следующая (XIX) московская очер. выставка была крайне бедна (40 борзых) и представляла мало интереса. Кроме уже известных Награждая Голицына, Удара Корша и Пылая Болда­рева выдавались вальцовская Стрелка (или Вьюга) от Раскиды И. И. Соколова и Кайсака Немировского и в особенности борзые В. П. Глебова, из которых особенного внимания заслуживала черно-пегая Стрелка (б. сер. мед.), очень ладная сука от Сударки князя Гагарина и Атамана Кареева, а также Удав и Чернец (м. сер. медали) от протасьевского Кидая и своей Злодейки. Из собак не­известных кровей обращал внимание серо-пегий Завладай П. И. Георгиевского от Удара своих (?) собак и Отрады Курносо-ва, замечательно хорошо одетый кобель, с отличною головою и правильными ушами, заслуживавший большой, а не малой сере­бряной медали.

Последние московские очередные выставки ясно доказали, что при неопределенности правил экспертизы, различии во взглядах на породу у ежегодно менявшихся судей и наличности других неблаго­приятных для псовой охоты условий они падают и количественно и качественно. Выставленная на XX выставке большая охота Окромчеделова, в подражание прежним охотам В. И, Лихачева и графа А. Д. Шереметева, хотя и привлекала внимание праздных зевак, но не рредставляла ничего выдающегося. Из 30 борзых, б. ч. кареевских, ни одна не получила высокой награды. Лучшими были собаки е. и. в. великого князя Николая Николаевича (4), в особенности Дорогой (от озеровской Лебедки и Атамана Глебова) и очень ладная, но плохо одетая сука Пройда (от Поражая своих собак и Дружбы Дурасова), награжденные, однако, только малыми серебряными. Из молодых псовых охотников хорошие экземпляры представили князь Б. А. Васильчиков (4-х от болда-ревского Блистая, 5 от кареевского Хана и своих сук, полукров­ных кареевских) и граф Д. С Шереметев (4).

В том же (1894) году открылась весною 3-я киевская очередная выставка, на которой было 37 борзых, б. ч. от озеровских, валь­цовских и глебовских собак, заключавших главным (?) образом кровь ермоловских. К таковым принадлежали борзые главного экспонента князя Д. И. Ширинского-Шихматова (13), Критского и Каширенинова. Родственны им собаки графа Нирода с подмесью кареевских. Из первых наивысшую награду (большую сер. медаль и золотой жетон Импер. общ, охоты) получил серо-пегий Пора­жай, очень ладный, но острощипый кобель (от Лебедя Глебова и озеровской Кары), однопометница его Сайга (м. с м.), Поспех, превосходный кобель с не совсем правильными передними ногами, от Атамана Глебова и Колпицы Вальцова (мал. серебр. медаль отдела и от Общества любителей породистых собак) и Алмазна от Лебедя Глебова и Голубки Николаева (м. с. м.). Из двух собак Критского, лучшая — Язва от озеровской суки (м. с. м); очень хорош также Крылат (м. с. м.) Каширенинова, тоже от озеров­ской суки. Швырок Нирода был уже на XVI очер. выставке, на которой тоже получил мал. серебряную. Затем следует упомянуть о 3 собаках барона Штейнгеля, из которых Тиран (собак Сатиной) награжден малой серебряною. Три борзые Канивальского от собак Новикова, отличавшиеся круглолобостью, экспертизе не подвер­гались.

На XXI выставке (40 псовых и 6 хортых) улучшенные кареев-ские преобладали над ермолово-болдаревскими и им родственны­ми. К таковым принадлежали 5 собак князя И. С. Мещерского от кобеля князя Д. Б. Голицына Награждая и своей суки, 3 борзые А. Е. Звегинцева, 2 — графа Н. А. Адлерберга, 3 — Бек-Мармар-чева, сука В. Д. Дмитриева и 2 суки Г. И. Кристи. Лучшими оказа­лись последние, именно Отрада (от Славы Хомяковского и Озор­ного Чебышова) и Злодейка, уже получившая б. сер. медаль на XVIII выставке. Наибольший интерес представляли собаки моло­дых охотников, впервые дебютировавших на выставках: П. Н. Бе-лоусова и А. А. Дурново, последние не столько ладами, сколько резвостью, обнаруженною на петербургских садках, где они достойно поддержали падавшую славу псовых. П. Н. Белоусов выставил 3 собак разного происхождения, именно известную по тамбовской выставке (см. выше) Язву, переименованную в Кра­сотку, Кару от Славы Н. П. Ермолова и Сердечного — кругом ермоловских собак и Диену от Задачи Дурасова и Озорного Н. А. Болдарева. Последняя сука — лучшая представительница псовых на выставках 90-х годов, с замечательно красивыми голо­вой, ногами, правильным? ушами и очень ладная— получила большую серебряную медаль и приз Русского охотничьего клуба. Из 5 очень однотипных собак А. А. Дурново от Украсы собак Чевакинского (назимовских) и кобелей императорской охоты (по-лукареевских?) лучшие — Нагла и Красотка, получившие малые серебряные. В 1894 году Красотка взяла великокняжеский приз, а Нагла мачевариановский. Обе суки много теряли оттого, что были непсовисты, имели желтые глаза и розовый вощок. П. Ф. Филатов показал 3-х ничем не замечательных собак, из которых 2 суки были уже не вполне чистокровными. Некоторый интерес представлял

Замечай князя Мещерского от псовой суки и хортого куцего кобеля собак Мосолова, тоже мешаных.

Наконец, последняя, XXII выставка была самая бедная (39, из них 5 английских). На ней снова преобладали ермолово-болдарев-ские и близкие к ним борзые. Кареевские были представлены лишь С С Кареевым и, конечно, для продажи; они были совсем зауряд­ными борзыми. Особенно выдавались П. Н. Белоусова Дивна и Сердечный (от Лебедя своих собак и Хвалы Раевского) типа ста­ринных густопсовых борзых, получивший большую серебряную, затем сука А. К. Болдарева — Лиходка (от Чародея И. И. Соко­лова и Удачи охоты великого князя-Николая Николаевича), кото­рой присудили большую серебряную и приз Русского охотничьего клуба, Летка (от Надмена Вальцова и Молвы Н. А. Болдарева) и Удача (от Кидая Н. А. Болдарева и Плутовки В. Н. Бибикова), удостоенные малых серебр. медалей. Лучше двух последних были Милка А. А. Евсеева (от почти кровных (?) ермоловских) и Сударка Д. Д. Осиповского (от Поражая Болдарева и Пагубы своих собак).

Из этого поверхностного обзора наших выставок мы видим, что на первых семи выставках преобладали качественно и количе­ственно кареевские псовые; но уже с 1879 года, когда появились несомненные признаки вырождения породы вследствие кровосме­шения (Карай Картавцева), появляются улучшенные кареевские от Нещады, Хищного и главным образом Злодейки. Борзые князя Гагарина, показанные на V выставке и садках на волка, сильно уро­нили славу кареевских, которая еще более померкла с вскоре затем последовавшей продажей всей кареевской охоты В. И. Лихачеву. На VII выставке вместе с гагаринскими, т. е. мачевариано-нази-мовскими псовыми, уже улучшенными подмесью крови той же Злодейки, показывается чистокровный мачевариановский Убей; на той же выставке мы видели и последних чистокровных березни-ковских. В следующем году родственные мачевариановским ермо-ловские и филатовские собаки выдаются красотою форм, много проигрывая мелким ростом. Поэтому уже с IX выставки Ермолов и его поклонники начинают подмешивать к своим собакам кровь гагаринских, протасьевских и других псовых, которые действи­тельно прибавили первым росту, но ухудшили внешность. Тогда же псовые охотники познакомились с дурасовскими псовыми, содер­жавшими старинную кровь назарьевских и ступишинских собак. Старый тип кареевских псовых до последнего времени всего лучше сохранялся С. А. Барышниковым, показавшим на X и XI выстав­ках своего Лебедя; кареевские с прибавлением Воли Сипягина (на-4—1024 зимовской) велись у князя Д. Б. Голицына и В. Н. Чебышова, а кровь мачевариановских в наибольшей чистоте хранилась в фила-товских собаках. С XII выставки начинается преобладание борзых очень смешанного происхождения, и в следующем году московские очередные выставки достигают апогея своего развития. Из этих мешаных собак постепенно выделяются борзые Н. А. Болдарева, Д. П. Вальцова, П. Н. Коротнева, заключавшие в себе кровь мачевариановских, протасьевских и ермоловских. Со смертью Ермолова выставки приходят в упадок, теряют большую часть своего интереса и снова начинается преобладание мешаных кареев­ских, за исключением последних выставок, где по числу и достоин­ству первенствовали болдаревские, мешаные протасьевские и ермоловские, так же как и на киевских, где большинство собак происходили от озеровских.

В результате этих взаимоскрещиваний все разновидности псо­вых утратили свою типичность, обезличились; исчезли последние густопсовые и чистопсовые, и получилась новая порода со смешан­ными признаками — современная псовая, мало похожая на старин­ную псовую, как понимали ее старые охотники, отличавшие гус­топсовых от обыкновенных псовых. Теперь самыми чистокров­ными псовыми (но не самыми ладными) едва ли не при <дется> счи­тать челищевских, филатовских, назимовских (?) и мажаровских, сохранившихся без подмесей у многих полевых охотников.

Главными причинами упадка московских выставок надо считать бездеятельность псового отдела, отсутствие правил экспертизы, а следовательно, выработанного типа — идеала русской борзой; неимение студбука и возрастающую путаницу и неверности в родо­словных; затем ничтожность поощрений, в виде покупаемых за деньги медалей, и отсутствие денежных призов, как на конных выставках. Немалое значение имел также все более и более воз­растающий антагонизм между выставочными и полевыми охотни­ками, предъявлявшими совершенно различные требования к соба­кам: первые слишком большое значение придавали голове и вообще красоте собак; последние чересчур много внимания обра­щали на ноги и рабочие лады. Наконец, псовый отдел император­ского общества до последнего времени не принимал никаких мер к привлечению экспонентов и не прислушивался к требованиям съез­дов псовых охотников, стремившихся упорядочить выставки. Трудно поверить, что за 20 с лишком лет общество не могло выра­ботать и утвердить приметы русской борзой, т. е. с чего следовало начать, и не успело составить правильный студбук, имеющийся не только у Общества любителей породистых собак, но даже у недавно основанного Финляндского общества!

В конце концов московские выставки сделались достоянием небольшого кружка псовых охотников, приводивших собак глав­ным образом с целью продажи. Но и этот небольшой кружок раз­делился на два враждебных лагеря — приверженцев улучшен­ных^) мачевариано-ермоловских собак и почитателей улучшенной кареевской породы, причем борьба между ними велась с перемен­ным счастием. Только очень недавно некоторые благоразумные охотники, без предрассудков и антипатий, догадались скрещивать ермоловских псовых с кареевскими, что следовало бы сделать лет 12—15 назад, когда и та и другая породы были кровными и не пред­ставляли из себя винегретов различных разновидностей.

Главная ошибка большинства псовых охотников заключалась в том, что они не довольствовались лишь освежением крови новыми производителями, а чуть ли не каждый из них старался вывести собственную породу скрещиванием нескольких, совершенно отличных между собою разновидностей. У очень многих борзые имеют предками представителей 5—6 и даже более отродий, и вряд ли найдутся охотники, которые за последние 10 лет вели породу без подмеси посторонней крови. По-видимому, никому не было известно правило овцеводов, по которому кровь другой породы должна быть приливаема к породе вырождающейся или требу­ющей известных изменений только в сильно разбавленном виде, то есть что противно правилам зоотехнии, и нельзя скрещивать две, хотя бы родственные, разновидности и от этой помеси вести поро­ду. Следует полученных вымесков скрещивать опять с коренной, основной расой и только детей их пускать в завод как производите­лей.

На это можно возразить, что для таких правильных экспери­ментов надо иметь немалое количество собак, затем, что псовые охотники имели дело, собственно говоря, с одной породой борзых, только различных владельцев. Первое замечание совершенно основательно, что же касается второго, то нельзя не принять во внимание, что к началу выставок во многих разновидностях обык­новенных псовых еще очень сказывалась недавняя подмесь хор­тых, крымок, чистопсовых, густопсовых и даже курляндских псо­вых; признаки одной из этих пород и составляли как бы отличи­тельные черты той или другой фамильной разновидности, или вариэтета, обыкновенно неправильно называемого «породой» такого-то охотника. Между тем в зоотехнии очень хорошо изве­стен тот факт, что при скрещивании двух даже очень близких раз­новидностей, имеющих смешанное происхождение, получает как бы импульс атавизм — возвращение к предкам, и в результате ока­зываются животные таких ладов и мастей, которые уже давно не замечались ни в той, ни в другой разновидности. Получаются т. н. сюрпризы, обыкновенно приводящие в смущение неопытных заводчиков и заставляющие их совершенно напрасно сомневаться в чистопородности чужого животного, избранного для скрещивания с ними. Очевидно, эта разнотипность однопометников, по крайней мере на первых порах, должна сказываться еще сильнее, когда в породу в скором времени снова впускалась посторонняя кровь.

Кроме того, большинство наших собаководов в своем стремле­нии к улучшению или освежению породы делали еще другую, обычную, впрочем, в небольших заводах ошибку. Именно: они приобретали большею частью производителя, т. е. кобеля, или даже только пользовались его услугами и вязали его со всеми или почти со всеми своими суками, не выждав результатов первого скрещивания. Между тем было бы гораздо менее риска испортить всю породу, приобретая для завода не чужого кобеля, а суку, но, как видно из каталогов выставки, это случалось весьма редко по той причине, что хорошие суки оставляются заводчиками на пле­мя, а не продаются. Едва ли не единственным и притом блестящим исключением является известная ратаевская Злодейка, дети кото­рой обновили кровь кареевских собак. Вопреки мнению конноза­водчиков, мы полагаем, что влияние матери на приплод гораздо сильнее влияния отца, которое может быть только быстрее, и совершенно понимаем, почему русские промышленники и ино­родцы при выборе щенков обращают внимание только на охот­ничьи качества сук, вовсе не заботясь о наружных и внутренних достоинствах кобелей.

Кроме этих неблагоприятных условий не столько для выставок, сколько для собаководства и вывода нескольких определенных типов русских борзых, пригодных для различных местностей и кли­матов, были и менее важные причины, препятствовавшие достиже­нию последней и главной цели.

Прежде всего выставки и возрождение псовой охоты вызвали открытие настоящих заводов борзых с исключительною целью их продажи, причем не обращалось внимания на полевые качества собак, с которыми почти не охотились. Эта торговля, продолжа­ющаяся и теперь, поддерживаемая усиленным спросом русских борзых за границу, была причиною порчи многих очень хороших собак, с каждым поколением утрачивавших резвость, злобность, наконец, жадность и скакавших по охотке. Между тем нам нужна не комнатная псовая борзая величественного вида, как иностран­цам, а резвая и злобная собака, которою можно было бы травить и русака, и красного зверя. Много пользы этим заводчикам и немало вреда псовой охоте принесли эфемерные показные охотни­ки, промелькнувшие подобно метеорам. Они накупали по дорогой цене плохих и отличных собак, мешали их зря и потом, через 3—4 года, перепортив их. уничтожали свою охоту, к которой не имели никакой склонности. Таким образом исчезло бесследно немало первоклассных кобелей и сук, которые в руках настоящих охотников принесли бы много пользы и могли бы способствовать улучшению русских борзых.

Между тем как выставочные охотники обращали слишком много внимания на внешность собаки, притом главным образом на рост, красоту головы и псовины, другие — собственно полевые охотники — искали грубых и прочных рабочих ладов и главным образом злобности. Это различие требований привело, однако, к одному результату — почти всеобщей утрате броска и лихой рез­вости, утрате, доказанной в последнее время состязаниями псовых с английскими. Вообще антагонизм между выставочными и поле­выми охотниками, изредка принимавшими участие в садках, сильно затормозил правильное улучшение типа современной псовой; пер­вые боялись испортить головы, вторые опасались за утрату силы и злобности своих собак подмесью выставочных медальеров. Вот почему такие рабочие собаки, как челищевские, мажаровские, назимовские, в настоящее время могут считаться самыми кровны­ми, вернее имеющими наиболее отдаленную примесь чужой крови. Очень мало существует на Руси полевых охотников, избегающих выставок и садок, но имеющих собак замечательных по ладам, рез­вости и злобности.

Но как рабочая борзая грубых форм, так и элегантная выста­вочная псовая все-таки принадлежат к одной расе — современной псовой, отличной от прежних русских пород. 30—50 лёт назад у нас их было еще целых четыре: обыкновенная псовая, густопсовая, чистопсовая и курляндская псовая, остатки которых, кроме послед­ней, мы видели на московских очередных выставках. Всего лучше сохранилась первая порода с более или менее заметною подмесью восточной борзой. Потребность в сильной собаке чувствовалась уже нашими отцами и дедами в этих смешениях: густопсовые отжи­вали свой век, курляндская псовая становилась достоянием преда­ния. Центр псовой охоты мало-помалу перемещался из примосков-ных губерний в черноземные, островная охота с гончими посте­пенно заменялась охотою внаездку, требовавшей от собак выно­сливости и продолжительной скачки. Мечта о возрождении густоп­совой так и осталась мечтою некоторых старых охотников, не сумевших сохранить ее, и реставрация излишней породы не могла встретить сочувствия у настоящих охотников.

Главная роль в выработке нового типа русской псовой бес­спорно принадлежала мачевариано-ермоловским собакам, кото­рые имели только незначительные, легко поправимые недо­статки — малый рост, короткую псовину и укороченное правило. Неудивительно поэтому, что большая часть современных борзых заключает большую или меньшую примесь этой крови, которая у многих исправила порочные лады: коровьи задние ноги, кривые и чрезмерно длинные хвосты; узкая грудь, плоские ребра стали встречаться реже; собаки сделались в общем как будто однообраз­нее, так что даже знатоки стали затрудняться определением их происхождения на глаз. Тем не менее как результат скрещивания многих разновидностей до сих пор в одном помете встречаются раз­нокалиберные щенки, что доказывает еще не вполне установив­шийся тип. Было бы и странно, чтобы он мог вполне определиться при таком разнообразии требований и вкусов и отсутствии руково­дящей нити в виде сообща выработанного идеала современной псо­вой. Понятно поэтому, что последняя имеет еще много недостат­ков, подлежащих исправлению: распущенное ухо, хотя встре­чается редко, но нынешние псовые не так псовисты, они почти утратили волнистость псовины и характерные отчесы и муфту, сде­лались чрезмерно бочковаты и прямостепы, редко имея низко спу­щенные ребра и правильный верх, голени у них слишком прямы, пазанки чрезмерно длинны и недостаточно эластичны.

Между тем как исчезновение резвых накоротке густопсовых и курляндских псовых совершенно понятно и естественно, трудно объяснить себе причину вымирания чистопсовых. Правда, порода эта не могла еще называться вполне определенною и установивше­юся и до сих пор не решено окончательно, произошла ли она от смешения псовой с английской или с восточной, или были две раз­новидности чистопсовых. Такие собаки, как Злорад кн. Черкас­ского могли иметь предком только англичанина, а не вислоушку. Не подлежит никакому сомнению, что в степи чистопсовая борзая пригоднее псовой, а что она лучше вымеска псовой с плохой висло-ушкой, об этом нечего и говорить. Хороших английских борзых доставать теперь очень легко, да они и ладами и ушами более подходят к псовой, чем восточные борзые. Говорят, что псовая при скрещивании с английской утрачивает бросок, но, во-первых, это еще не доказанное предположение, а во-вторых, бросок при степ­ной ловле не имеет большого значения и обыкновенно утрачи­вается сам собою. Можно только удивляться, что до сих пор почти никто из псовых охотников (кроме, быть может, гг. Апушкина и Мосолова) не занялся правильным, методичным скрещиванием английских с псовыми.

Переходим теперь к описанию как прежних, так и существу­ющих пород русских борзых.

Выше мы видели, каким путем татарские kurtzi Герберштейна с пушистыми ушами и хвостом, скрещиваемые с легкою породою волкообразных северных собак, превращались в остроухих борзых с длинною псовиною. Подобное образование породы наблюдается и в настоящее время на Кубани, где также сталкиваются северные остроухие дворняжки с вислоухими восточными борзыми; только дворняжки эти, как более южные, не имеют длинной псовины, и кубанские борзые могут быть названы чистопсовыми. Что русские борзые XVII столетия все имели длинную псовину, доказывается сочинением фон Лессина (1635); хотя последний не упоминает об ушах, но из слов Левшина (начало XIX стол.) и Хомякова (в соро­ковых годах) очевидно, что большинство псовых еще имело сто-


Modern borzoi

ячие или полустоячие уши. В XVII веке, несомненно, и не было других пород русских борзых, кроме описанной фон Лессиным, так как влияние хартов, приведенных поляками в Смутные времена33, не могло быть значительным и эти харты в смешении с псовыми не могли успеть выделиться в новую самостоятельную породу: обра­зовавшиеся чистопсовые помеси с короткою псовиною, с под­шерстком и уборною псовиною, обновляемые только псовыми, неминуемо возвращались через несколько поколений к прежнему коренному типу. В течение всего XVII столетия порода псовых блюлась, по-видимому, в чистоте и совершенствовалась главным образом в подмосковных областях, где сосредоточивались вотчины бояр и служивых людей.

В следующем столетии, когда значительная часть казенных земель на юге и юго-востоке была роздана заслуженным и чинов­ным дворянам, район псовой охоты значительно расширяется, вме­сте с тем начинаются частые скрещивания с польскими хартами, английскими и в особенности брудастыми борзыми, обратившими на себя внимание русских охотников своею злобностью. Результа­том этого увлечения брудастыми была новая, промежуточная порода — курляндская псовая, с более благообразною наружно­стью. Тогдашние псовые охотники — русские бары и курляндские бароны — были недовольны резвостью брудастых и их внешно­стью и стали скрещивать их с псовыми, которые отняли у них усы и бороду, оставив злобность и силу, прибавили им резвости, в осо­бенности пруткости, т. е. быстроты накоротке, передав также характерный для псовой бросок. Письма Салтыкова и Волынского и знаменитый волкодав (Зверь) князя Барятинского доказывают нам это увлечение брудастыми. Сам Зверь был уже продуктом сме­шения брудастого ирландского кобеля с псовой сукой.

Однако курляндская псовая, по-видимому, никогда не имела широкого распространения и составляла редкость даже в больших охотах; она была слишком неуклюжа, груба и неэлегантна в срав­нении с красавицей псовой. Но прыткость и в особенности злоб­ность ее были слишком заманчивы для охотников, а потому ими в непродолжительном времени была выведена новая порода псовых, отличавшаяся очень длинною, густою и волнистою, даже завитою псовиной, узкогрудых и низкопередых, с удлиненными задними ногами и сильно развитым верхом, красотою и прыткостью даже превосходивших старинную расу. Надо полагать, что густопсовая была создана в больших подмосковных охотах в конце прошлого века, так как о ней впервые упоминается только у Левшина. В его время это была уже, несомненно, если не преобладающая, то самая ценная порода. Губин говорит, что в начале этого столетия псовые (т. е. густопсовые) считались еще большою редкостью и продава­лись очень дорогою ценою в Польшу (см. выше).

Это первенствующее значение густопсовых продолжалось не более полустолетия. В течение этого времени они совершенствова­лись в красоте и длине псовины, пруткости, броске и злобности. Но чрезмерное увлечение псовиною и пруткостью, а главным образом островная езда и постоянная травля из-под гончих на коротких перемычках, ведение породы в близком родстве при сортировке не по ладам, а по резвости имели результатом быстрое вырождение. Густопсовая была всегда борзою крупных бар и велась, стало быть, псарями почти без наблюдения и контроля владельца охоты. Явилась чрезмерная лещеватость, уродливая остростепость, порочный зад и слабосилие. Такие собаки, конечно, совсем непри­годны для охоты внаездку в открытых местностях. Псовые охот­ники средних черноземных губерний не могли быть довольны «ко­роткодухими осетрами», «чехонными псовыми» и были выну­ждены необходимостью мешать их с горскими, крымскими и хор­тыми борзыми. Успехи Сердечного, а позднее Отрадки на москов* ских садках были причиною того, что к 50-м годам почти все рус­ские борзые — и псовые, и густопсовые, курляндские псовые — перемешались с вислоухими восточными, образовав новую разно­видность, вернее две разновидности, — чистопсовых борзых, наз­ванных так в отличие от прежних псовых, и густопсовых. Самое название «чистопсовые» встречается в печати только с сороковых годов. Эти чистопсовые не составляли, по-видимому, никогда

Рис. 10. Современная псовая.

Лебедь императорской охоты («Охотничий календарь»)



вполне определенной самостоятельной породы, так как имели сме­шанные и непостоянные признаки, приближаясь то к хортым, то к восточным, а всего чаще к псовым борзым, которыми постепенно и поглощались, мало-помалу утрачивая короткую псовину и распу­щенное ухо. Вместе с псовыми и остатками густопсовых эти разно­видности чистопсовых образовали современную псовую, уже несколько отличную от прежней псовой конца прошлого и начала нынешнего столетия.

Таким образом, из 3 или 4 постепенно образовавшихся рас рус­ских псовых борзых в конце концов выделилась одна порода — сов­ременная псовая, с довольно еще смешанными и неопределенными наружными признаками и внутренними качествами. Для того чтобы вполне выяснить и установить эти признаки, составить себе идеал псовой борзой, необходимо предварительно ознакомиться со всеми, хотя бы исчезнувшими, расами, как они описываются ста­ринными и современными охотничьими писателями, начиная с фон Лессина и кончая Губиным.

Вот что говорит фон Лессин о статях борзых в св

оем «Регуле, принадлежащем до псовой охоты» (1635):

«Вначале голова сухая и продлинноватая, без перелома. Щипец ту же длину имеет, без подуздины. Зазор (глаза) навыкате. Степь или наклон — облая, о соколке (груди) не описую... Ноги передние прямые без поползновения, также и задние. Правило длинное, в серпе, псовина и лисы вподобие вихров. Псовина длинная висящая, какая бы шерсть не была, наподобие кудели. Ноги передние вывернуты лопатки назад. Ребра ниже щиколоток (?). Ногти, как у передних, так и задних ног, короткие и крутые, чтобы так как башмаком стучать должны. Ноги, как передние, так и задние, сухие. О степи не описываю — облая или шатровая, а доказываю только о ребрах и о черных мясах — чтобы черные мяса крутые, отвислые вподрез (?). У кобеля подборы (перепонка под пахом) тонкие и натуге, притом не отвислые. У сучки черные мяса лучше продлинноваты(е), мочи (помочи — то же, что подборы) крепкие, хотя несколько помочи и отвислые, да притом же были и крепки. Мышки бы (у суки) круглые и крутые, соколок был бы острый и пригнулся бы несколько книзу. У кобеля продлинноватые мышки*, высокие и крепкие, а соколок, хотя и остр, только надлежит (ему) быть кверху или прямо. Вощечку быть крепкому, как сзади, так и впереди. Ширину между крестцов — чтобы четыре пальца сво­бодно укладывались. Ребра низкие, свислые, притом же плотные. Кобелю должно наперед упасть, а суке должно быть в колодке».

Описание борзых в книге Г. Б. «Псовый охотник» (1785), пере­печатанное затем во 2-м издании (1791) «Совершенного егеря», относится, очевидно, к хортой борзой**.

«Борзых резвых и цепких узнать по статям, а именно: голова сухая, длинноватая и клинчатая; щипец длинный и тонкий, глаза большие и хорошие, ноги сухие и жиловатые, в пазанках сжатые и узковатые, не лаписты и разноперсты, но чтобы утыкала (ногтя­ми) в землю; ребра долгие, плотные и ниже локотков и были бы бочковатые; задние ноги потянулись, черные мяса велики, тол­сты и крепки; правило серповатое и в себе бы было свободно,

* Мышками фон Лессин называет «выше от колена до степи», вероят­но, место от локотков до загривка.

** Это видно из предисловия, в котором Г. Б. (не Григории ли Барятин­ский, обладатель Зверя?) говорит, что его труд — перевод с польской (руко­писной) книги, а также из самого описания.

широкая в груди и локотках, крепкого тела, не узка и не кругла, сверху была бы широка, не переляка и не очень долга; а кобель что круче и короче, то красивее. Суке борзой должно быть статной и широкой; хотя которая и крутая, только бы в себе была широка, хороша и не переляка, крепка, довольных черных мяс, головы сухой, острых глаз, щипца и шеи длинной, правило серповатое, не слабых ног и не лещеватых и узких ребр».

В начале этого столетия о борзых писал Левшин в своей «Книге для охотников» и позднее в «Всеобщем и полном домоводстве» (ч.ХП). Описания пород и статей борзых не отличаются у него точ-

Рис. П. Современная псовая. Коротай Мюра

Korotai (Muir)

костью. «Впрочем, ныне породные собаки редки, — говорит он, — ибо охотники сделались непостоянны и одной известной породы не держатся, а блюдут лучших сук с кобелями резвыми, хотя неиз­вестной породы; а оттого и выходят от собак само по себе резвых порода и дети негодны.

О статях борзых собак, поелику оных очень много (?) пород, определить трудно; ибо каждая порода имеет свою оценку, да и сами охотники не очень в том согласны между собой. Однако же вообще приметы красивой и резвой собаки состоят в том, что она должна иметь длинную, суховатую голову, тонкий щипец (носовую часть), не быть подузда... Далее, шея у нее должна быть длинная и гордая, степь, или хребет, длинный и широкий, особливо же у суки, ибо кобель не столько длинный считается красивейшим. От борзой собаки требуют, чтобы она была поджара и сухопара, но притом ребриста и широка в груди, противное чему означает собаку слабую. Сарновая кость, т. е. длинные последние ребра счи­тают за признак резвой и сильной в полях собаки. Правило должна иметь она длинное с густою псовиною, прямо висящее и кверху в кольцо загнутое. Ноги... сухие, не мясистые, прямые, чтобы концы оных не поползли, т. е. не выгнулись бы вперед; зацепы (ла­пы) малые, сжатые, как у зайца-русака, и чтобы опирались они на коготках».

Длинная и гордая шея, длинный и широкий хребет с широкою грудью и, наконец, правило, в кольцо загнутое, — признаки не псо­вых, а хортых и восточных или, во всяком случае, мешаных бор­зых. Это видно и из описания мастей борзых.

«Шерстьми борзые собаки бывают разные, как то: белые, полбвые, красные, муругие, то есть красные с черным щипцом и черными концами ног, черно-пегие, полово-пегие, красно-пегие, серо-пегие; бурматно- и чубаро-пегие, серые и чубарые, когда они полосаты и в полосах находится больше серого и желтого».

Далее: «Сука, имеющая кобелиные стати, считается красивою и резвою. Что надлежит до ушей, то оные у псовых собак должны быть подняты вверх, а у хортых обвислые...»

Почти то же, в сущности, говорит Левшин в своем «Всеобщем и полном домоводстве». Упомянув о четырех главных русских породах (густопсовых, псовых, курляндских и хортых борзых), он говорит далее: «К складным, или красивым, статям кобеля борзого потребно, чтобы имел он голову чистую с длинным щипцом, огни­стыми и ясными глазами и бодрыми ушами, длинный скамьистый стан, однако ж без переслежины; правило длинное, прямо вися­щее, или хотя кольцом на конце вверх загнувшееся, но не свислое в сторону; ноги сухие, жилистые, и персты у оных сжатые, как бы на ногтях стоящие или опирающиеся. Чем больше персты у собаки сходствуют к русачьим, признак ее резвости; когда же, говоря по-охотничьи, ступни у ней поползли, персты кривы и раздвинуты, значит собаку слабую. Сука борзая при всех вышесказанных статях должна иметь голову сухую и длинную; стан короткий красивее в кобеле, а у суки же должен быть длинен. Как у кобеля, так и суки борзой вислые уши составляют безобразие. Должно, чтобы только концы оных загибались вниз, как бы были заломлены. Широкие ребра составляют признак сильной собаки; равным образом и широкая грудь. У которых собак задние ноги длиннее передних, таковые резвее скачут в гору, а у коих длиннее передние (!), тако­вым способнее ловить под гору. Имеющие же передние и задние ноги равной (?) меры бывают способны к ловле по плоскоместью. Редко удаются резвые собаки (!) из тех, у которых зад бывает выше переда в лопатках».

В начале сороковых годов писали о борзых только известные А. Д. Хомяков и Н. Реутт, но описания их не дают более точного понятия о породах русских борзых и их ладах. Хомяков* сравни­вает английскую борзую с густопсовою и крымкою: «Английская борзая имеет свои добрые качества и может быть полезна в поме­си, чтобы исправить недостатки наших доморощенных пород: она увертлива на угонках, довольно красива, отличается иногда полно­тою черных мяс и тетивою, но почти никогда не имеет хороших ребр, до локотков, и редко имеет хорошую степь, т. е. совсем без переслежины; наконец, она далеко уступает пруткостью и даже красотою склада нашей густопсовой, а силою и крепостью ног с крымаком не может тянуться. Хажется, вообще можно сказать, что, имея дома такие типичные породы и с такими разнообраз­ными достоинствами, как густопсовая с ее различными оттенками, клоками (которых мы также причисляем к густопсовой), бурда-стыми и прибурдями, и горскую с ее бесчисленным разнообразием, нам не для чего искать породы заграничной и что искусный охот­ник может составить помеси, соединяющие в себе всевозможные совершенства.

Точно так же, как граница римского или германо-романского мира определяется борзыми с острыми, назад откинутыми ушами, а мир ислама вислоухими, так и мир славянский может гордиться своей самобытной породой. Густопсовая принадлежит, очевидно, области леской: она уступает соперницам в силе, т. е. в дальней поскачке, но превосходит их своею почти баснословною прутко­стью накоротке; она рослее, гораздо красивее, несравненно силь­нее в боевой схватке, злобнее на дикого зверя и в то же время послушнее. Ее отличительный признак — прямое ухо, поднятое кверху, как будто настороже, т. е. по пословице: держи ухо вос­тро».

Реутт ничего не говорит о статях и отличиях русских пород между собою, но делит русских борзых на густопсовых и чистопсо­вых. «Псовая значит борзая, в прилагательном относящееся соб­ственно к собаке, во-вторых, служит сокращением псовистой. Таким образом, произнося псовистая или псовая борзая собака, мы определяем собственно тип русской борзой собаки; виды ее по количеству псовины определяются выражениями густопсовая и чистопсовая собака, подразумевая под этим борзых. Отличитель­ный характер густопсовой собаки составляет длинная шерсть, или псовина, иногда в завитках по всему туловищу и оконечностям,

* Статья «Спорт», напечатанная сначала в «Москвитянине» 1874 года, № 2, затем в собрании сочинений и перепечатанная в «Ж. импер. общ. охо­ты»24, 1876, январь («Мнение Хомякова об охоте»).

кроме щипца, головы, ушей и лап. Чистопсовая собака не опушена псовиною по туловищу, но имеет ее на правиле вися­чею, на краях черных мяс, ног и по бокам шеи расположенную гребнем».

Первое подробное и обстоятельное описание русской борзой, именно густопсовой, дано А. С Вышеславцевым, писавшим позднее под псевдонимом Старого Охотника в «Журнале охоты» Мина 1862 г. (август, стр. 3—11, «Псовая собака»). Описание это было дополнено автором почти 20 лет спустя («Прир. и охота», 1880, VI), уже после выхода в свет «Записок псового охотника Сим­бирской губернии» П. М. Мачеварианова (1876), составивших эпоху в литературе псовой охоты. Мачеварианов принимает четыре вида (?) псовых собак — густопсовых, обыкновенных псо­вых, курляндских псовых и чистопсовых. Описания ладов этих пород, однако, весьма поверхностны и даже сбивчивы, так как главное отличие между ними оказывается в псовине:

1) «Густопсовая собака имеет длинную густую, шелковистую псовину в четверть, в крутых завитках, преимущественно на шее, над передними лопатками, на боках, на мочах, на черных мясах, на гачах и в особенности на правиле. Цвет псовины кровных густопсо­вых был, по рассказам стариннейших охотников, белый, черный (?), серый, черно-пегий и серо-пегий; но теперь встречаем муругих, красных, половых, черных с подпалинами, бурматных и всех озна­ченных мастей пегих...

2) Обыкновенные псовые собаки имеют густую, волнистую псо­вину в вершок по всему корпусу; большие ровные отчесы, бакен­барды и длинную волнистую уборную псовину, особенно на прави­ле, доходящую до четверти и более... Псовина обыкновенных псо­вых собак бывает различных мастей...

3) Курляндские псовые имеют голову, уши, горло, передние ноги от локотков, задние от голенного мускула и правило атласи­сто-гладкие, как у левреток; а все прочее тело покрыто псовиною в самых мелких завитках, как у молодого кровного пуделя. Собаки эти были рослые, крепкие, злобные, сильные и необыкновенно резвые. Из них преимущественно выраживались лихие. Ныне их не только трудно иметь, но даже встретить, разве в Кур­ляндии...

4) Чистопсовые, как должно предполагать, происходят от даль­него смешения псовых с хортыми или псовых с крымскими собака­ми. Псовина на них низкая, плотная, шелковистая и гладкая; отчесы густые, идущие по бокам шеи гребнем. Уборная псовина не волнистая, а прямая и редкая, как страусово перо... Цвет псовины курляндских и чистопсовых собак одинаков с прочими псовина­ми...»

Книга Мачеварианова вызвала оживленную полемику между псовыми охотниками и многие очень дельние замечания, а также более обстоятельные описания признаков старинных пород псо­вых. Лучшее описание густопсовой со всеми присущими ей достоинствами и недостатками, как сказано выше, дает А. С. Вы­шеславцев*, описывая борзых тридцатых годов своего брата — Сорвана и Милотку — идеалы красоты псовой собаки.

«Ростом Сорван был 17 вершков, Милотка была среднего роста с небольшим верхом; шерсть у обоих белая, шелковистая, волнистая, местами с завитками; глаза большие, темно-карие, лас­ковые; лапы в комке, с длинными пальцами. Уши лежали всегда концами вместе на затылке и даже скрещивались, когда собак брали на свору; лоб продолговатый, узкий и едва заметным усту­пом сходил на переносицу, образуя грациозный профиль греческих античных статуй- щипец до того сухой, что ясно были видны формы и направление костей и главные вены, и к носу несколько наклоненный книзу, без чего щипец походил бы на лисий или врл-чий. Шея, сравнительно с английскими собаками, была недлинная и поднималась от лопаток вверх не так прямо, что было у всех породистых псовых тогдашнего времени. Зарез (как у лошадей на затылке) меньше, чем у английских. Спина с крутым верхом, с сильными почками, но не такая широкая и полная, как у английс­ких собак, и всегда пирогом, т. е. с заметными позвонками, несмо­тря на густую и длинную шерсть. Ребра отнюдь не бочковатые, как у английских и некоторых горских собак, но очень длинные, пониже локотков и с большим расстоянием одно от другого, что при короткости собаки почти уничтожалд пахи; достаточное же расстояние между ребрами как у собаки, так и у лошади дает животному возможность сильно сгибаться и разгибаться на скаку. Зад широкий и несколько свислый, что способствует заносить дальше под себя задние ноги; прямой крестец — плохая рекоменда­ция для скаковой лошади и борзой собаки. Ноги, особенно задние, Сорван держит всегда, так сказать, под собою, а не за собою сзади; так же держат их олени, дикие козы, зайцы. Задние ноги несколько изогнуты, не совсем прямые, отчего они длиннее, так как изогнутая линия длиннее прямой; до лучковатых ног еще дале­ко; с прямыми задними ногами редко хорошо скачут и лошади и собаки. Мускулы на задних ногах (черные мяса) и плечах были длинны, но не выпуклы; у английских собак, напротив, они коротки и очень выпуклы; первое дает быстроту, второе — спо­собность продолжительной скачки, что замечается у английской скаковой лошади. Грудь не шире ладони, так же как у волка и

* «Прир. и охота», 1880, стр. 114—117, июнь. «Идеалы псовых собак».

дикой козы, и если некоторые охотники ищут у борзых широкой груди и выпуклых мускулов, то очень ошибаются. Хвост (прави­ло) был не серпом, но саблей, что, конечно, много грациознее, и недлинный, как у многих сырых собак, но не доходит до земли вершка на два по крайней мере... Эти стати и были, по свидетель­ству охотников семидесятых годов (моего деда, отца и других ста­рых охотников) прошлого столетия, статями чистокровных псовых борзых. «Кобель должен умещаться в равностороннем четырех­угольнике (квадрате)», — говорил один из наших известных старин­ных охотников (т. е. холка, концы цальцев передних ног и пятки задних должны составлять равносторонний четвероугольник, из которого выходит только часть шеи и голова); сука значительно длиннее; если она с некоторым верхом, то грациознее».

Как видно из описания, а также предыдущих статей того же автора, последний имел в виду исключительно густопсовую бор­зую. О псовых собаках вообще, как старинных, так и современ­ных, писали кроме Вышеславцева очень многие охотники (Н. Че-лищев, Н. Д. Ступишин, С С Кареев, Н. П. Ермолов, Блохин, В. Озеров, Д. П. Вальцов и некоторые другие), но мнения этих охотничьих авторитетов будут приведены далее, в общем описании статей всех псовых, а теперь мы приведем почти дословно описа­ния чистопсовых, псовых и курляндских псовых, даваемые П. М. Губиным в его замечательном «Руководстве ко псовой охо­те» (1890), которое во всех отношениях надо поставить гораздо выше мачевариановских записок, хотя автор, увлекаясь полеми­кой, в свою очередь, впадает в крайности и противоречия. Так, например, Губин густопсовых вовсе не признает породою, и корен­ною русскою породою борзых, о чем было уже упомянуто выше, считает чистопсовую. Тем не менее его описания чистопсовой и курляндской псовой, можно сказать, единственные и притом весьма подробные и обстоятельные.

«О чистопсовых борзых собаках. Самою древнейшею и сообраз­ною нашему климату породою русских борзых была порода собак кровная чистопсовая. Название же этой породы борзых образова­лось, как я уже сказал, от слова «чистый пес», в смысле чистокров­ности, чистопородное™ и чистоты собаки по виду, т. е. элегант­ности, пропорциональности частей и необыкновенной красоте ладов ее. Вследствие чего старинные псовые охотники, убедив­шись при этом в изумительной резвости этих собак, необыкно­венно дорожили ими и тщательно вели породу этих чистых псов, которая и сохранилась на Руси до наших времен под названием чистопсовых борзых.

Чистопсовую борзую собаку старинные знатоки, псовые охот­ники, сравнивали относительно кровности с кровною арабскою лошадью и поясняли это тем, что в пометах от кровных чистопсо­вых отца и матери дети-сюрпризы (как нынче называют) никогда не выраживаются, а я утверждаю, что и не выраживаются.

По виду чистопсовая кровная борзая должна быть красоты неописанной; чрезвычайно пропорционально сложенная, элегант­ная. Такая собака никогда не должна быть очень крутою и корот­кою, т. е. в комке, а скорее длинною, не исключая и кобелей. Кобель должен быть непременно с верхом, а сука — прямостепая и непременно с самой легкой напружиной, т. е. чтобы степь слегка была выгнута кверху вроде небольшого вершка, едва заметного у суки.

Голова чистопсовой борзой должна быть небольшая, правиль­ная, чрезвычайно сухая, продолговатая, с пропорционально длин­ным правильным щипцом; с блестящими, темными или черными, всегда веселыми навыкате глазами.

Уши чистопсовой борзой должны быть маленькие, узкие и про­долговатые и правильно поставленные: должны в спокойном состоянии собаки непременно лежать на затылке вместе, как бы соединяясь концами, и только в тревожном состоянии собака ста­вит их конем, а иногда бывает и с приподнятым ушком, словом, уши чистопсовой борзой должны быть непременно в откладе и с правильным их зарезом.

Ноги чистопсовой борзой должны быть сухие, костистые; Лапа русачья^ продолговатая; задние ноги потянулись, с правильным постановом их, т. е. не очень прямы и не очень лучковаты и заце­пами утыкались бы в землю; задние пазанки средней величины; передние ноги должны быть прямы, как бы подобраны под собаку и стоять должны на коготках, как бы слегка суживаясь от локотков к земле в лапах, если смотреть на собаку спереди.

Грудь выпуклая, полная, так что соколок груди не образует в стоячем положении собаки по сторонам своим глубоких западин. Ширина груди должна быть пропорциональна ширине зада и вообще ширине собаки, которая, если смотреть сверху, должна казаться собакою широкою и длинною. По выражению старинных охотников, о чистопсовой борзой в книге под заглавием «Псовый охотник», издание 1728 (?) г., говорится так: «Не узка и не кругла, была бы сверху широка»*.

Шея чистопсовой борзой есть отличительный признак ее чисто­

* Сравни описание ладов борзой к Г. Б. «Псовый охотник» 1785 г. Выше мы уже говорили, что существование издания 1728 года весьма сомни­тельно.

кровности и непременно должна быть длинная и конистая, как у кобелей, так и у сук.

Ребра бочковатые, но не особенно низкие и не высокие, во вся­ком случае, не выше локотков.

Подхват тонкий, хороший.

Правило чистопсовой борзой составляет исключительный приз­нак чистокровности ее и поэтому непременно дожно быть в чистом серпе, всегда весело приподнятое в рыску и главное «в себе было бы свободно». Длина правила должна быть такой меры, что когда пропустить его между задних ног собаки и вывести из-под брюха сбоку наверх, то чтобы последний хвостовой позвонок мог при­крыть первый с того бока маклок; такой длины правило будет всегда пропорциональным росту собаки и всегда будет красиво; более короткое или более длинное правило для чистокровной чистопсовой борзой будет составлять уже недостаток, не говоря­щий в пользу ее чистокровности.

Плечи полные, мускулистые. Движение в локотках свободное. Соколок груди должен выдаваться из-за плеч вперед.

Черные мяса полные, хорошие.

Псовина чистопсовой борзой должна быть короткая, немного длиннее, чем у крымской борзой, но только необыкновенно мяг­кая, блестящая и в зимнее и осеннее время имеющая густой, пуши­стый подшерсток. Уборная псовина, привесь и отчесы не особенно редки и при этом неравномерно распределены, а именно: уборная псовина на гачах сравнительно очень длинная, достигает полутора-вершковой длины, волнистая или, вернее, вилая, с густым подшерстком у основания и красиво вниз висящая пушистыми шелковистыми прядями; на нижней стороне ребер и подхвате без заметного подшерстка, но достаточно густая, шелковистая, пря­мая, постепенно удлиняющаяся с половины ребер и пахов книзу, никогда не превышает внизу одновершковой длины; на шее кругом головы едва превышает полувершковую длину обыкновенной псо­вины чистопсовой борзой и лежит гладко, волнообразно; отчесы небольшие; привесь на правиле полувершковой длины, шелкови­стая, прямая и не очень густая, висящая с нижней стороны правила, тогда как верхняя часть правила покрыта короткою вилою псови­ною; вследствие чего правило должно казаться тонким, постепенно утончающимся от прочного основания к концу; на передних же ногах с задней стороны шелковистая редкая привесь не превышает длины одного вершка. Псовина на голове, начиная от ушей и шеи, и на ногах спереди должна быть приблизительно длины мышиной шерсти, блестящая и атласисто-гладкая.

Настоящий окрас чистопсовой борзой: белый, половый всех теней, полово-пегий и муруго-пегий... Линька у чистопсовой бор­зой начинается с первых чисел мая и в течение двух месяцев окан­чивается совершенно, так что к 1-му июля здоровая (т. е. не боль­ная) собака должна окончательно перебраться, сбросив с себя всю старую псовину.

Рост чистопсовой борзой средний.

Характер вежливый, ласковый, веселый, смирный и настойчи­вый в полях.

Рыск веселый, передний и всегда на рысях.

Резвость чистопсовых борзых баснословная как накоротке, так и в полях; хотя в силе с горскими и крымскими они сравниться не могут, но тем не менее уходу русаку от чистокровных почти быть не может на том основании, что по причине их шеистости они очень поимисты и потому более двух-трех угонок русаку не дают никогда, а чаще ловят русаков без угонок. При этом очень зор­ки, азартны и злобны, но никогда не волкодавы, хотя травят волков и чистопсовыми борзыми, так же как травят их и крым­скими» W

Судя по описанию ладов чистопсовой, надо полагать, что г. Гу­бин имел в виду вполне установившуюся породу чистопсовых, происшедшую от скрещивания псовых с английскими борзыми ста­рого типа, вероятно, еще в конце или средине прошлого столетия. Мы знаем из писем Салтыкова и Волынского, что в пятидесятых годах прошлого столетия английские борзые не составляли у нас редкости и очень уважались многими псовыми охотниками. Нечего и говорить, что теория чистокровности чистопсовых не выдержи­вает никакой критики.

«О псовых борзых собаках. Второю установившеюся веками породою русских борзых, но позднее(?) первой (т. е. позднее чистопсовой породы) следует считать породу кровных псовых собак.

Порода псовых собак образовалась от меси чистопсовых с кур-ляндскими борзыми собаками, и поэтому относительно кровности псовую борзую можно сравнить с кровным орловским рысаком, а псовая русская борзая выведена старинными знатоками — псо­выми охотниками, не оставившими, к несчастию, потомству своих имен, но тем не менее с достоверностью можно утверждать, что порода псовых русских борзых в начале 1800 годов считалась еще большою редкостью, так как в те времена помещик Тамбовской губернии Шацкого уезда Павел Ермолаевич Мосолов, обладая настоящими псовыми борзыми, продавал их в Царство Польское по баснословно дорогой цене для того времени, а именно: по семи и десяти тысяч рублей на ассигнации за собаку... и что порода псо­вых борзых есть выведенная, то доказывается тем,, что в пометах от кровных псовых собак всегда и прежде выраживались сюрпри­зы; так, например, от кровных, в завитках, красавцев псовых отца и матери некоторые щенята выраживались голошерстными и нао­борот...

По виду кровная псовая борзая должна быть громадна, мощна, псова и свирепа. Пропорционально сложенная, такая борзая если это кобель, то должен быть крутой, с верхом, страшной ширины и в комке точно сбитый, а сука прямостепая, широкая, с богатыр­скою колодкой и длинная, но не перелякая, не растянутая и без вся­кой переслежины.

Голова псовой борзой должна быть большая, сухая и костистая, с длинным, здоровым, ровным щипцом и никак не вострощипова-та, т. е. не тонкорыла или, как говорят, кувшинница; вообще голова псовой борзой не должна представлять пряничной голов­ки, словом, голова псовой борзой должна быть очень правильная, но в увеличенном пропорционально росту размере против чисто­псовых собак. Лоб средний, не очень широк и не узок; глаза очень большие, свирепые, со слегка отвислыми нижними века­ми, из-за которых должен виднеться кровавый белок страшного глаза.

Уши псовой борзой должны быть в откладе, так же как у чистопсовых, небольшие и даже немного крупнее, при этом могут быть в чепце или без него, стоячими конем или с приподнятым ушком, но всегда в спокойном состоянии в откладе, и чем ухо псо­вой борзой имеет правильней зарез, тем лучше; это означает, что такая псовая борзая выродилась ближе к типу чистопсовых собак; с распущенным ухом, но только в слабом виде распущенности могут быть псовые борзые, выродившиеся ближе к типу собак бор­зых курляндской породы, что хотя и не доказывает непородности псовой борзой, как и все упомянутые разновидности постанова ушей у псовой собаки, но тем не менее уменьшает красоту собаки; большая же распущенность уха у псовой борзой (т. е. мешаное ухо), несомненно, должна служить доказательством грубой меси собак.

Ноги прочные, мускулистые и крепкокостистые; при этом должны быть сухи так, чтобы на костях через кожу видны были жилы; пазанки средней величины пропорционально росту собаки, и задние пазанки должны быть скорее высоки, т. е. длинны, чем низки; лапа большая, продолговатая, с сухими, плотно прижатыми друг к другу костистыми пальцами; передние ноги от бочковатости ребер и ширины груди должны быть обращены лапами как бы внутрь и, слегка суживаясь в оконечностях, стоять должны прямо, как натянутые струны; задние ноги должны быть скорее лучкова­ты, чем прямы, но непременно правильно поставлены, т. е. не вразмете и не лыжеваты: стоять псовая борзая должна на когот­ках, как и всякая хорошая борзая собака.

Грудь широкая, но не выпуклая; грудные западины довольно глубоки; соколок груди едва выдается из-за плеч.

Шея длинная, но еще лучше, если конистая, как у чистопсовых.

Ребра очень низкие, ниже локотков пальца на три и бочкова­тые, так что на загривке собаки (т. е. над передними лопатками) должна свободно укладываться ладонь; ширина зада так велика, что между маклоками можно укладывать семь пальцев, и вообще зад должен быть шире переда.

Подхват хороший, высокий, необходимый для собаки с верхом.

Правило псовой борзой должно быть длинное, прочное в осно­вании и к концу тонкое, в спокойном состоянии собаки опущенное книзу и только в рыску приподнятое в чистом серпе. Длина правила у псовой борзой определяется таким же способом, как у чистопсо­вой, только правило псовой борзой должно быть немного длиннее правила чистопсовой, т. е. чтобы последний хвостовой позвонок мог при измерении только доставать до позвоночного столба и ни в каком случае не далее, так как более длинное правило или более короткое, чем у чистопсовой, будет составлять уже большой недо­статок, не говорящий в пользу чистокровности борзой псовой породы.

Плечи полные, мускулистые. Движение в локотках свободное. Соколок груди едва выдается из-за плеч вперед.

Черные мяса огромные, полные, с страшно развитою мускула­турой и крепкие.

Псовина псовой борзой должна быть длинная, приблизительно двухвершковой длины, притом редкая, не густая, всегда мягкая, как шемаханский шелк, и непременно блестящая, серебристая, одинаково длинная как на ребрах, мышках, шее, так и на спине; уборная псовина, привесь и отчесы много длиннее обыкновенной; так, например, уборная псовина на гачах нередко достигает четырехвершковой длины, с густым подшерстком, и висит вниз волнообразными шелковистыми прядями; на нижней стороне ре­бер и подхвате — очень редкая, без заметного подшерстка и никог­да не превышает двух с половиною вершков длины, и то только в самом низу, так что на взгляд это удлинение против обыкновенной псовины должно быть почти незаметно. Отчесы у кобелей иногда бывают громадные и нередко достигают 4-вершковой длины; у сук же отчесы бывают преимущественно одинаковой длины с обыкно-венною псовиной и редко превышают ее. Привесь на правиле от трех до четырех вершков длины, висящая вниз с нижней стороны правила и всегда, за очень редкими исключениями, прямая, шелко­вистая; волнообразная привесь встречается очень редко; с верхней стороны правила псовина должна быть короче обыкновенной и, постепенно укорачиваясь к концу правила, только у основания его всегда бывает в завитках или волнообразною; на передних же ногах с задней стороны шелковистая редкая привесь не должна превышать длины обыкновенной псовины. Псовина на голове, начиная от ушей и шеи, и на ногах спереди лолжна быть очень короткая, в виде мышиной шерсти, и немного только от глаз к ушам крупнее, но непременно блестящая и атласисто-гладкая. Вообще псовина борзых псовой породы бывает трех сортов, а именно: прямая, вилая, т. е. волнистая или волнообразная, и в завитках. По этим видам псовины и выражаются охотники о псо­вых собаках так: «Прямопсовая; с вилою псовиной; с псовиною в завитках». Все эти разновидности псовины происходят у псовых борзых вследствие того, что собака если выраживается ближе к типу курляндских борзых, то бывает с вилою или в завитках псови­ною, если она выродится ближе к типу чистопсовых собак, то бывает с псовиною более прямою. И поэтому ни одна из этих трех разновидностей псовины у борзых псовой породы не исключает их чистокровности, при одном только условии, чтобы псовина эта была не густа, т. е. не шерстиста, так как шерстистость, густопсо-вость всякой борзой есть неизменный признак грубой меси в собаке и доказательство подмеси крови овчарных или дворных собак.

Настоящий окрас псовой борзой: белый, бледно- или красно-полово-пегий, серо-пегий и муруго-пегий.

Линька борзых псовой породы составляет главную их особен­ность и заключается в том, что кровная борзая псовой породы начинает линять с апреля месяца и продолжает линьку до поло­вины сентября, совершенно незаметно для глаз неопытного охот­ника; она никогда не вылинивает сразу, а теряет псовину постепен­но, по волоску, так что вида своего не изменяет и во время линьки, чего никак не может быть с грубомешаными псовыми и других пород собаками.

Рост борзой псовой породы крупный.

Характер энергичный, но скоросый и свирепый.

Рыск передний или у стремени; походка гордая и как бы с ино­ходью».

Очевидно, г. Губин огщбывает здесь не псовую, а разновидность густопсовой, более грубых и широких ладов, т. н. волкодавов, отличавшихся силою и свирепым характером; весьма сомнительно, однако, чтобы эти волкодавы имели длинную шею и отвислые нижние веки. Более нежели странно утверждать после напечата-ния «Регула» фон Лессина, что псовая борзая — порода недавнего происхождения, образовавшаяся от смеси чистопсовой с курлянд­ской, и совершенно отрицать существование густопсовой, которая, в действительности происходя от смеси старинных псовых с кур-ляндскими псовыми, именно отличалась густою псовиною, унасле­дованною ею от последних.

«О курляндских борзых собаках. Курляндские борзые представ­ляют собою самый крупный тип собак изо всех пород борзых, известных у нас в России.

По виду курляндская борзая страшна и как бы неуклюжа. Дви­жения ее походят как бы на движения медведя, бегать рысью она никогда почти не могла, а рыскала иноходью, с развалом или напрыгом, а поэтому курляндская борзая при громадной своей величине, необъятной ширине зада, страшной низкопередости и общей сыроватости, при понуром ее виде, казалось бы, ничего не должна обещать по виду в пользу своей резвости, но тем не менее необыкновенная правильность ее частей, в отдельности взятых, дает ей возможность быть страшно резвой, но только на очень коротком расстоянии. Вообще курляндские борзые, как кобель, так и сука, должны быть с верхом: зад много выше и шире переда, вследствие чего при крутом верхе собаки и большом ее наклоне к переду она должна быть всегда низкопереда.

Голова курляндской борзой прилобиста и сыра, с продольною впадиною (лощинкою) посредине лба; щипец длинный, здоровый и правильный; лоб средний, скорее широк, чем узок; глаза большие, свирепые.

Уши средней величины, скорее велики, чем малы, узки, про­долговаты и постоянно в откладе лежат по обеим сторонам голо­вы, вдоль шеи. При этом в возбужденном состоянии собаки кур­ляндской породы никогда ушей не ставят во всю их длину, а толь­ко как бы вздергивают их кверху, причем кончик уха свисает как бы назад и набок; но, несмотря на распущенность уха, никогда не поворачивают их кпереду, свесив и запрокинув всю конеч­ную половину уха наперед, как это делают борзые мешаной по­роды.

Ноги прочные, сухие и крепкокостистые: главная особенность ног курляндской борзой заключается в том, что задние ноги много длиннее передних (сравнительно с размером ног борзых собак дру­гих пород); задние пазанки длинные; передние пропорциональны величине передних ног и скорее низки, чем высоки; лапа большая, продолговатая, но сравнительно с лапами борзых других пород круглее; передние ноги должны быть прямы, а задние лучковаты и слегка как бы вразмете, но так, чтобы это не составляло положи­тельного недостатка или порока в собаке. Вообще постанов ног, и в особенности передних, должен быть правилен.

Грудь не широкая сравнительно с шириною зада; соколок груди не выдается из-за плеч, и грудные западины довольно глубокие.

Шея правильная.

Ребра низкие и бочковатые; ширина степи, крестца, и в особен­ности зада, необыкновенная. Зад много шире переда.

Подхват хороший, высокий, необходимый у собак с верхом.

Правило курляндской борзой очень длинное и ровное, так что при измерений длины правила способом, указанным выше, послед­ний хвостовой позвонок, проходя через маклок, может соприка­саться с другим, противуположным маклоком, но не далее того; притом правило курляндской борзой во всяком ее положении должно быть опущено книзу и только в конце загибается немного кверху, изображая из себя как бы букву г; во время же скачки за зверем курляндские борзые отделяют правило так же, как и всякие другие борзые собаки.

Плечи полные, мускулистые. Движение в локотках свободное. Соколок груди не выдается из-за плеч вперед или иначе, не заме­тен.

Черные мяса огромные.

Псовина курляндской борзой должна быть длинная, приблизи­тельно двухвершковой длины, и вся в мелких завитках, притом совершенно равномерно распределена по всему корпусу собаки, за исключением кобелей, у которых псовина на шее, постепенно удлиняясь к голове, нередко достигает трехвершковой длины и бывает с более крупными завитками, что и заменяет у кобелей отчесы; у сук же и этого не бывает, а потому псовина на всем кор­пусе у сук должна быть одинаковой длины. Главная особенность породы курляндских борзых та, что эта порода собак не имеет ни отчесов, ни привеси. Щипец и нижняя часть головы, а также ноги передние от локотков, а задние от колен покрыты очень короткою атласисто-гладкою и блестящею псовиною, как голова и ноги спереди у псовых и чистопсовых борзых; лоб, начиная от глаз до ушей, хотя покрыт такою же короткою псовиною, но уже псовина эта лежит волнообразно, переходя между ушей как бы в завитки, сливающиеся у ушей с завитками обыкновенной псовины; правило все кругом покрыто короткою волнообразною псовиною, как у двухмесячных щенят псовой породы. Вообще псовина курляндских борзых мягкая, шелковистая; но тем не менее грубее псовины бор­зых псовой породы.

Настоящий окрас курляндской борзой: серый, половый всех теней, муругий, чубарый и пегий означенных мастей. Окрас белый без отметин никогда у курляндских борзых мне не встречался.

Линька у курляндских борзых начинается с апреля месяца и про­должается до сентября, как и у псовых борзых, но только выпили­вает курляндская борзая не так, как псовая; она линяет частями, так, например, прежде вылиняет шея, затем перед, а на заду дер­жится еще старая псовина, и наоборот, и т. д., словом, курляндская борзая сбрасывает с себя старую псовину не по волоску, как псовая борзая, а частями*.

Рост курляндской борзой— самый крупный, так что суки менее 17 вершков, а кобели менее 18 вершков встречаются как исключение.

Характер свирепый и притом понурый.

Рыск задний и у стремени, притом всегда напрыгом или ино­ходью с развалом, рысью же почти никогда.

Резвость курляндской борзой страшная, но только на очень коротком расстоянии; при этом курляндские борзые очень поими­сты, чему способствует их низкопередость, а в схватке с волком они незаменимы по причине необыкновенной их силы, т. е. мощ­ности и злобы».

Это описание курляндской псовой единственное** и, надо пола­гать, совершенно верное.

Собственно говоря, признаки всех псовых совмещены в боль­шей или меньшей степени в современной псовой, которая нередко имеет склад чистопсовой, псовину волнистую и голову псовой или густопсовой. Поэтому всего целесообразнее рассмотреть в отдель­ности каждую часть тела всех пород псовых на основании описаний старинных и современных охотничьих авторов; затем из имеюще­гося и разобранного критически материала будет уже нетрудно составить приметы современной псовой. Начнем с головы.

Красота и правильность головы у борзой, как у большей части пород собак, главнейшее условие породистости. Породистой, кров­ной борзой, как замечает Д. П. Вальцов, можно скорее простить поползшие ноги, чем грубую и короткую голову. Кроме курлянд­ской псовой, имевшей сравнительно широкий лобастый череп и сырой щипец свайкой, у всех русских борзых голова должна быть

* В этом она представляет большую аналогию с русскою степною овчаркою. — Л. С.

** Несмотря на все старания, мы не могли найти ни одного печатного указания в немецкой литературе Остзейского края. Полагаем, однако, что в старинных усадьбах баронов должны сохраниться по крайней мере изобра­жения этих борзых на картинах и портретах прошлого столетия.

узка, суха и длинна; у старинных псовых и густопсовых череп был настолько узок, что уши у них скрещивались концами*, чего у сов­ременных никогда не замечается. Почти у всех русских борзых, отличающихся злобностью, головы сравнительно грубее и прило-бистее, щипец короче и мясистее, т. е. с очень сильно развитыми жевательными мускулами; такое строение головы отчасти зави­сит от подбора, но едва ли не чаще происходило от подмеси ради увеличения злобности крови брудастых или же курляндских псовых.

Как это ни странно, но до сего времени отношения размеров головы к росту и длине борзой, а также щипца (т. е. морды) к черепу с точностью неизвестны, так как никаких измерений не производилось и судьи руководствовались при оценке головы лишь глазомером, не у всех одинаково верным. Вообще голова псовой борзой относительно длиннее и $же в черепе, чем у английских, и приблизительно равняется росту собаки в загривке, а длина шипца должна равняться длине черепа или немного превосходить ее. Череп сверху плоский, овальной формы, не расширяющийся к затылку, а переходящий с небольшим закатом в сильно развитый и острый соколок**, точнее, затылочный гребень, причем, однако, затылок не отделяется от шеи, а незаметно переходит в нее. Ква-дратность или клинчатость черепа, также прямой срез к затылку — безусловно порочны. Надбровные дуги мало развиты, и лоб постепенно переходит в щипец без перелома, так что от самого затылка до конца морды (вощечка) выходила бы прямая линия. Иоътоцу допускается лишь едва заметная изложина посре­дине лба. Ермолов называет профиль головы псовой греческим в том смысле, что, если смотреть в профиль, линия лба и щипца представляется почти прямой, с незначительным возвышением у бровей и с впадиной между глаз.

У чистопсовых, происходивших от хортых, череп был всегда выпуклее, чем у происходивших от смешения псовых с восточными борзыми, голова которых мало отличалась от головы русских бор­зых. Самое главное, чтобы лоб не имел выпуклости и передома, как у английской и курляндской псовой, а сливался бы со щипцом; однако небольшая прилобистость, придающая собаке более серь­езный и угрюмый вид и своеобразную красоту, не может считаться

* Такое положение ушей встречается у согостырских (в устьях Лены) борзовидных лаек, употребляемых для заганивания оленей в тундре. Только уши у них скрещиваются, когда прижаты к шее; в спокойном же состоянии уши не соприкасаются.

** Губин и большинство охотников называют соколкдм выдающуюся часть грудной кости, что правильнее. Ермолов и некоторые другие соколо-ком зовут затылочный гребень.

пороком, равно как и легкая горбоносость. По справедливому замечанию Вышеславцева, «щипец, несколько наклоненный кни­зу, не так походит на волчий или лисий», Прилобистость, большею частью соединенная с горбоносостью, замечалась у трегубовских собак, у Чародея, ратаевской Злодейки и у большей части потом­ков последней, составляя весьма устойчивый признак некоторых отродий псовых и густопсовых в особенности. Но, само собою разумеется, излишняя горбоватость щипца, напоминающая баранью голову, очень некрасива и порочна.

Щипец должен равномерно утончаться к концу, иметь надлежа­щую длину и быть настолько сухим, чтобы на нем ясно виднелись формы личных костей и главные вены; подбородок до горла не мясист и покрыт нежной атласистой псовиной. Очень узкий, тон­кий и сильно заостренный щипец, так же как маленькая голова, не свойственны псовым*. Острощипость почти всегда соединяется с подуздостью, т. е. укорочением нижней челюсти, вследствие чего верхние резцы находятся впереди нижних. Такое строение щипца составляет большой порок у всех собак, тем более у борзых, и бывает причиною непоимистости. Кроме того, подуздость, прида­вая щипцу борзой сходство с стерляжьим носом, крайне безобразит общий вид собаки, а потому считается всеми большим пороком, тем более что она большею частою является следствием ведения породы в близком родстве и передается в потомство. Точно так же порочен щипец слишком тупой, курносый с выемкой и так назы­ваемый щучий, т. е. широкий и плоский. Вощок (чутье) непре­менно черногр или темно-коричневого цвета; светлый вощок — большой недостаток и служит признаком начинающегося выро­ждения; ноздри довольно широкие (раскрытые), чуть выдающиеся над нижнею челюстью.

Глаза. «У каждой кровной породистой, резвой и красивой бор­зой, какой бы породы она ни была, — говорит Мачеварианов, — глаз должен быть огромный, блестящий, навыкате». Это совер­шенно верно, так как неоспоримо, что изо всех чувств самое необ­ходимое для борзой — зрение. «Зазор навыкате», говорил еще фон Лессин, но отсюда не следует, однако, заключать, что глаза должны быть выпуклы, так как выпуклость глазного яблока свя­зана с близорукостью. Мачеварианов, а за ним Ермолов сравни­вают глаз псовой с вальдшнепиным, но сравнение это весьма неудачно именно потому, что у вальдшнепа, как почти ночной пти­цы, глаза слишком выпуклы и круглы; кроме того, они имеют

* Поэтому рисунок густопсовой, сделанный Вышеславцевым, с очень маленькой пряничной головкой совершенно не верен. Следует заметить, что у псовых сук, как у всех собак, голова относительно меньше и тоньше, чем у кобелей.

чересчур кроткое и даже глупое выражение. Гораздо вернее срав­нить глаза борзой с соколиными, так как они должны быть ясны­ми, блестящими и иметь тот острый взгляд или выражение, кото­рое присуще хищным птицам. «Голова с огнистыми и ясными гла­зами» (Левшин). «Глаза горят, как агаты» (Челищев).

Хотя взгляд псовой имеет, если она не ласкается, суровое или по крайней мере серьезное выражение, но он все-таки не должен быть свирепым. Поэтому весьма странно, почему г. Губин в своем руководстве, описывая псовую борзую (вернее, густопсовую), говорит, что глаза у нее «большие, свирепые, с слегка отвислыми нижними веками, из-за которых должен виднеться кровавый белок страшного глаза» (т. е. белок с кровяными жилками). Действи­тельно, у некоторых волкодавов замечаются иногда кровяные пят­нышки на белках, но это происходит от частого озлобления при схватках с волками (Мачеварианов); отвислости же век ни в каком случае у псовых (за исключением курляндских псовых) быть не должно, и такой глаз всего чаще встречается у хортых от отдален­ной подмеси мордашей, которой в русских борзых никогда не быва­ло.

В общем, глаза у псовой больше, чем у английской, не так кру­глы, как у брудастых, и имеют продолговатый и прямой разрез, отнюдь не косой, как у волка, лисы и некоторых лаек. Что касается цвета радужины, то он должен быть черный или темно-карий; карие желтоватые глаза — недостаток, особенно у белых, полбвых, серых и пегих этих окрасов собак; такие глаза допуска­ются лишь (Озеров) у чубарых, бурматных и этого окраса пегих. По замечанию некоторых охотников, у особенно злобных собак глаза большею частью с желтоватою радужиной, но эта примета не вполне верна и, вероятно, основана на том, что в очень злобных псовых часто бывает примесь брудастых и что желтый глаз имеет всегда очень суровый, иногда даже свирепый взгляд. По свидетель­ству старых охотников, густопсовые, в большинстве волкодавы, имели чаще суровый взгляд, более гармонировавший с их несколь­ко понурым видом и волчьей манерой держать шею. Глаза в тем­ных окрайках, окружены ресницами (черными); подопрелые веки, т. е. светлого, телесного цвета, хотя некрасивы, не составляют, од­нако, порока, как полагают многие, потому что встречаются боль­шею частью у кровных собак белого окраса, и хотя передаются потомству, но легко могут быть исправлены производителем, не, имеющим этого недостатка. По свидетельству С. Кареева, изред­ка замечаются у псовой и серые глаза; это, однако, уже признак начинающегося вырождения. У очень кровных собак вследствие частого кровосмешения глаза имеют часто различную величину и окрас, подопрелые веки, наконец, становятся почти белыми.

Уши подобно глазам составляют нераздельную часть головы, тем более что у современных псовых они почти не отделяются от нее и мало заметны. Мы имеем полное основание думать, что у ста­ринных русских борзых уши были если не всегда^ то большею частию стоячими или полустоячими, т. е. с загнутыми (наперед) кончиками. К сожалению, фон Лессин об ушах вовсе не упоминает; однако значительно позднее, в начале XIX столетия, Левшин в своей «Книге для охотников» говорил: «Что надлежит до ушей, то оные у псовых собак должны быть подняты вверх, а у хортых обви­слые». Во «Всеобщем полном домоводстве» им также говорится о

Рис. 12. Современная псовая. Крылат Уэльслея '(«Охотничий календарь»)

Wing of Wales

«бодрых» ушах, очевидно стоячих. Даже в сороковых годах А. Хо­мяков, говоря о русской борзой, считал ее отличительным призна­ком «прямое ухо, поднятое кверху, как бы настороже, т. е. по пословице: держи ухо востро».

Многие из современных охотников помнят т. н. остроушек с большими стоячими ушами, как у лаек; такие борзые встречались в некоторых охотах, особенно у мелкотравчатых, и имели своих поклонников, считавших стоячие уши признаком особенной чутко­сти, т. е. сильно развитого слуха и даже (!) резвости. Изредка такие остроушки встречаются вследствие атавизма кое-где и теперь; в Кубанской же области, как мы видели, почти все борзые, составляющие как бы прототип русских борзых XV и XVI столе­тий, имеют стоячие уши.

Но лет 50 или более стоячее ухо уже не считается типичным для псовой и густопсовой борзых; курляндские же никогда такого уха не имели. Теперь правильные уши должны быть небольшими, как бы сложенными вдвое вдоль, в расправленном виде иметь форму заостренного клина с слегка закругленными сторонами; они зало­жены назад и лежат вдоль шеи у затылка собаки, даже соприкаса­ясь концами между собою; эти т. н. уши в закладе, или откладе, имеют полную аналогию с ушами лайки, когда она их щулит, т. е. прижимает, чем-нибудь испуганная, вообще из боязни. Такое странное положение ушей не встречается ни у одной породы собак, и трудно дать ему удовлетворительное объяснение. В возбужден­ном состоянии или когда борзая настораживается — прислуши­вается, эти заложенные назад уши она более или менее приподни­мает кверху конем, причем кончики их в это время обыкновенно запрокидываются наперед (т. н. ухо в чепце, по Губину); совсем стоячее ухо, как сказано, встречается у немногих современных псо­вых даже в минуту возбуждения.

Вследствие частых скрещиваний псовых с широколобыми хор­тыми и вислоухими восточными борзыми вполне правильный постанов ушей встречается очень редко, и у большей части совре­менных псовых уши хотя и плотно прижаты к шее, но широко рас­ставлены и почти никогда не соприкасаются кончиками*; нередко они даже свешиваются концами к щекам (уши с крымью), что счи­тается большим недостатком и признаком подмеси вислоухих бор­зых. Следует заметить, однако, что у чистопородных густопсовых ухо могло быть распущено вследствие атавизма, т. е. когда они выраживались ближе к типу курляндских псовых, так что распу­щенное ухо не всегда бывает следствием нечистокровности. Во вся­ком случае, уши должны быть тонки и покрыты короткой атласи­стой псовиной, без пучков и прядей; тонина ушей — признак высс-кой крови.

Шея. Фон Лессин говорит о «волковатой» шее, как о порочной, и советует браковать «толстошееватых» и короткую шею име­ющих; также и Левшин упоминает в «Книге для охотников» о «длинной и гордой» шее. Тем не менее к числу типичных, хотя бы порочных, признаков старинных густопсовых надо отнести именно короткость шеи и ее волчий постанов — понурость, свойственный преимущественно волкодавам. Старые авторитетные охотники, как Вышеславцев, Ступишин, Челищев, положительно утвержда­ют, что у густопсовых шея была не длинная и не поднятая кверху,

* Как, например, у Угара Тумановского.

как у лошади или лебедя, а короткая и прямая, почти на одной линии со степью (спиной), что ясно видно на рисунке густопсовой Вышеславцева и заметно в меньшей степени у старого кареевского Наяна, чебышовского Награждая, перепелкинского Поражая и у некоторых других борзых старого типа. Вообще вся шея с псови­ной имела прежде волчий склад и была лишена возвышенности у затылка.

Короткость и негибкость шеи были главными причинами непо-имистости густопсовых, и в связи с броском объясняют, почему они так часто убивали зайца грудью на угонках. Обыкновенные псовые, надо полагать, всегда имели лучшую шею; точно также у

Рис. 13. Фуллертон,

.английский борзой кобель полковника Д. Т. Норта. Главный приз Waterloo Сир 1889 и 1890 гг. («Журнал охоты» А. Е. Корша, 1890, №6)


Fullerton English greyhound

современных русских борзых, особенно имеющих кровь мачева­риановских, шея правильнее, т. е. пропорционально росту длин­нее, гибче, и хотя не такая гордая, конистая и выпуклая, как у анг­лийских, а также хартов и чистопсовых, происходящих от английс­ких и хартов, но отнюдь не понурая, притом сухая, без мясистого загривка, сжатая с боков; у сук она всегда тоньше, длиннее и более плоска, чем у кобелей. Мускулистая, здоровая шея, как справед­ливо заметил Ермолов, нужна волкодаву, а для ловли и поимки русака удобнее длинноватая гибкая шея.

Грудь и плечи. Хотя старинные псовые имели довольно широ­кую грудь, но она никогда не достигала ширины английских и вос­точных борзых. Несомненно, однако, что густопсовые всегда имели сравнительно узкую грудь, а у последних вырождавшихся представителей этой породы грудь была даже чрезмерно узкая и впалая. По Вышеславцеву, она была не шире ладони и не выдава­лась между плеч. Недостаток ширины у этих борзых более или менее возмещался глубиною груди, которая спускалась на 2—4 пальца ниже локотков. Вообще следует заметить, что у борзых, как у животных, предназначенных для быстрой скачки, грудь должна быть сравнительно уже, чем у всех других пород собак, и притом тем уже, чем кратковременнее бывает их скачка, то есть пылкие борзые всегда лещеватее сильных, ловящих вдаль. Мы видим, что у английского скакуна, у дикой козы, зайца, даже у вол­ка, отличающегося выносливостью в беге, грудь всегда гораздо Јже сильно развитого зада. У современных псовых она сделалась шире, выпуклее, мускулистее, с выдающимся из-за плеч сокол­ком, без глубоких западин, но зато редко спускается ниже локот­ков; многие псовые имеют даже распахнутую грудь, что у скако­вого животного считается большим пороком. Во всяком случае, зад борзой должен быть гораздо, по крайней мере в полтора раза, шире переда.

У прежних псовых, тем более густопсовых, плечи были не очень выпуклы, даже плоски; у современных же они полнее, мус­кулистее и резче очерчены, особенно у мачевариановских и им сродных. Плечи у них с довольно высокою лопаткой, косые, с сво­бодными локотками, отделенными от грудного ящика, так что между ними и ребрами помещается палец или два; подвернутые внутрь локотки — большой недостаток, так как собака, тыкаясь локотками в грудной ящик, не может иметь быстрой скачки; кроме, того, они всегда бывают соединены с косолапостью, т. е. выверну­тыми наружу лапами. Замечательно, что теперь, как в старину, тупой и короткий соколок груди считается признаком тупости бор­зой в скачке. У фон Лессина говорится притом, что у сук «соколок должен пригнуться книзу, а у кобелей надлежит быть направлен­ным кверху или прямо».

Ребра, образуя грудной ящик, составляют нераздельное целое с грудью и должны бы рассматриваться с нею. По-видимому, старин­ные псовые были так же широки в груди и имели выпуклые, а не плоские ребра, как большинство современных, но ребра были у них спущены ниже локотков, чем они отличались от более широ­когрудых чистопсовых и курляндских псовых. Фон Лессин говорит положительно: «ребра ниже щиколоток (!)», и далее «ребра, низ­кие, свислые, притом же плотные». Даже в книге «Псовый охот­ник» (1785), составляющий перевод с польского, и где, по всему вероятию, описывается хортая, а не псовая, требуется от статной борзой ребер долгих, плотных, ровных и ниже локотков, но при­том бочковатых, что почти несовместимо. Вообще грудь псовой имеет или, вернее, имела большое сходство с грудью северных вол-кообразных собак.

Широкое ребро всегда было признаком сильной собаки: «слабая собака пашистая и редкоребрая — ребро от ребра отстоит далеко» (фон Лессин). Однако «резвыми или ловцом они быть не мешают, только день езди, три корми». О широком ребре и ребристости говорит и Левшин. Даже в 70-х годах Н. Чёлищев, описывая ста­ринную густопсовую упоминает о частых, как бы слитых, ребрах.

Тем не менее надо полагать, что широкие ребра не были харак­теристичны для настоящей густопсовой, изо всех борзых имевшей самую короткую колодку, — именно потому, что слитые ребра могут давать только силу в скачке, но не резвость. Вышеславцев, таким образом, прав, требуя у густопсовой большого расстояния между ребрами, что при короткости собаки почти уничтожает пахи; по его справедливому замечанию, достаточное расстояние между ребрами как у скаковой лошади, так и у борзой дает возмож­ность туловищу сильно сгибаться и разгибаться при скачке.

Что касается собственно большей или меньшей выпуклости ребер, неправильно называемой бочковатостью, то у современной псовой ребра все-таки менее закруглены, чем у английской и вос­точных борзых, у которых грудной ящик в разрезе составляет почти правильный овал. У псовой же он должен иметь в разрезе яйцевидную форму с тупым концом на спине, а у лещеватой и остростепой густопсовой даже чечевицеобразную. Вообще не сле­дует увлекаться бочковатостью ребер у борзых, всегда соеди­ненной с чрезмерно широкою, распахнутою грудью. Очевидно для всякого, что грудная клетка с крутыми круглыми ребрами не может сильно увеличиваться в объеме при дыхании и что широкая грудь обусловливает укорачивание плеч и выворачивание локот­ков наружу.

В настоящее время требуют от псовой ребер только до локот­ков при достаточно широкой, даже чуть распахнутой груди; если же грудь узковата, то ребра должны быть обязательно спущены ниже локотков на 1—2 пальца, как у старинных густопсовых, то есть глубина груди обратно пропорциональна ее ширине. Сильно

5—1024 спущенные ребра при короткости колодки у кобеля часто быстро уменьшаются к подрыву. Это некрасиво, хотя не может считаться порочным (Ступишин), ко вообще длинные последние ребра всегда считались признаком резвых и сильных в полях собак. С другой стороны, борзая с крутыми короткими ребрами, постепенно умень­шающимися к подрыву, всегда кажется прибрюшистою, особенно сука, и не имеет правильного подрыва, так как живот у нее не подобран выше пахов. Между тем резко обозначенные пахи спо­собствуют свободному галопу даже у легавых. Вообще окружность груди у борзых должна быть несравненно более окружности живота, чем у всех прочих пород собак, а именно в 1 V2 раза и до 2-х.

Спина. Строение спины и зада обусловливает большую или меньшую силу всякого четвероногого. Широкая прямая спина с сильно развитым задом встречается у борзых сильных, т. е. спо­собных к продолжительной скачке — хортых и восточных. Все же породы и отродья русских борзых, даже чистопсовые, никогда не имели прямой брусковатой или широкой спины, так как все они были низкопереды и не предназначались для продолжительной скачки в полях. При постанове задних ног под себя перпендику­лярно телу и при их длине крестец неминуемо должен был выг­нуться и образовать верх, характерный для всех пород псовых, в особенности курляндских псовых, которые были самыми низко-передыми и широкозадыми из русских борзых. Таким образом, спинной хребет имел выгкб, который был особенно заметен при короткости колодки, т. е. у кобелей.

Искривление это не следует смешивать с переслеговатостью или провислостью, замечаемой преимущественно у старых сук и слабых кобелей и выражающейся з том, что концы лопаток выда­ются выше средины степи (спины). У сук, имеющих более длинную колодку, чем кобели, спина может быть почти прямою, но все-таки крестец (маслаки) должен несколько возвышаться над лопатками и ни в каком случае не быть ниже их. Таким образом, у сук может и должен быть некоторый наклон, то есть, как правильно говорит Д. П. Вальцов, спуск от крестца к лопаткам, что бывает у всякой низкопередои собаки, даже при прямой спине. У кобеля же, по его мнению, должен быть верх, а не наклон, то есть выгнутая посре­дине спина; степь от лопаток удлиняется горбом и понижается к маслакам; очень большой верх может, однако, оказаться горбом и, следовательно, порочным неестественным искривлением спинного хребта.

Правильно выгнутый хребет (или т. наз. напружина) дает спине упругость и гибкость, очень важные в поскачке, особенно на небольшие расстояния, хотя и в некоторый ущерб силе. «Прямой крестец, — замечает Вышеславцев, — плохая рекомендация для скаковых лошадей и борзых». При таком выгибе, или верхе, зад необходимо должен быть слегка свислым, как у многих английских скакунов. Правильный верх должен, по Вальцову, начинаться от плеч, идти полукругом (?) до середины спины и также постепенно спускаться к крестцу, так что линия крестца составляла бы без вся­кого излома его продолжение до корня правила. Озеров тоже тре­бует, чтобы верх начинался от плеча постепенным возвышением, достигал середины между плечами (лопатками) и кострецом (крестцом) и также бы постепенно спускался, образуя чуть ско­шенную линию между кострецом и корнем правила (хвоста). Он полагает, однако, что требовать у собаки в полевом теле этого перехода без малейшего намека на западинку при соединении лопа­ток со спинною костью невозможно. Короткий обрубленный кре­стец — большой порок, ибо ведет к еще большему — прямым пал­кообразным ногам. По Блохину, степь, понижаясь к маслакам, переходит в так называемую срамную площадь, которая пони­жается к комлю правила и расширяется к вертлюгам. Эта срамная площадь (между маслаками и комлем правила) у псовых длинная, а не короткая, как у английских, и совершенно плоская, то есть верт­люги не ниже правила.

Что касается ширины спины у русских борзых, то она, конечно, всегда соответствует ширине груди и грудного ящика. Скамьистая, то есть плоская, широкая брусковатая спина псовым вовсе не свой­ственна. Разумеется, собака не должна быть остростепой, иметь шатровую спину, как у осетра: это — порок, присущий только выродившимся чистокровным густопсовым и не встречающийся ни у какой другой породы. Однако плоская спина с сильно развитыми мускулами может дать только силу, а не резвость: спина должна быть слегка закруглена, но не может иметь желобка. По мнению Озерова, спина должна быть настолько широка, чтобы скрыть от глаз соединение спинного хребта с ребрами достаточно брускова-той полосой. Правильная степь действительно должна быть закру­гленная — облая, как определил ее еще фон Лессин: «Степь или наклон— облая... Сухопарые и небегчивые собаки имеют не облую степь, но шатровые и сами собою узкие».

Последние слова доказывают, что во времена Алексея Михай­ловича борзые с острыми выдающимися позвонками не составляли редкости; быть может, они уже предпочитались другим для ловли на коротких перемычках, где силы вовсе не требовались.

У сук спина должна быть несколько шире, особенно в мочах. Чем ближе современные псовые к густопсовому типу, тем чаще между ними встречаются суки, имеющие небольшой верх при достаточно длинной колодке. Вообще чем прямостепее собака, тем спина у нее шире, и наоборот: очень крутые кобели всегда бедны спиной, и она у них бывает пирогом, т. е. с заметными позвонками, несмотря на густую и длинную псовину.

Многие авторитетные охотники высказывали мнение, что от суки с верхом (напружиной) всегда более шансов получить ладных, крутых кобелей, чем от прямостепой*. Приверженцы широкой сложки псовых утверждают, что скамьистые суки всегда лучше вынашивают щенят и бывают молочнее сук с напружиной. Это верно только относительно коротких сук в кобелиных статях, как для всех пород собак, но если у суки просторные пахи и брюхо имеет достаточное помещение для щенят, то замечание это лишено основания.

Хотя густопсовые и курляндские псовые несомненно были узко­груды и лещеваты, особенно первые, но можно утвердительно ска­зать, что при всем том они имели, особенно курляндские, широкий, даже несоразмерно, зад. У старинных псовых времен Алексея Михайловича между крестцов свободно укладывались четыре пальца (фон Лессин). Вышеславцев, описывая густопсовую с узкою грудью и спиною пирогом, говорит о сильно развитых почках и широком заде. По Блохину, между маслаками** должна была укладываться ладонь большой мужской руки. У знаменитых трегубовских собак, по свидетельству Мачеварианова, между задних маслаков укладывалось шесть пальцев. Собака с широким и свислым задом может дальше бросать под еебя задние ноги, вслед­ствие чего скачок ее длиннее. Таз непременно должен быть широк, ибо только при этом условии задние ноги могут далеко захваты­вать пространство впереди передних.

Передние ноги. Плечевая кость должна несколько податься назад при соединении с локтевою, то есть плечи косые, тогда ноги будут стоять правильно, под собаку, иначе будет казаться, что собака стоит на подпорках. Хотя передние ноги служат только опо­рой во время скачки, как у зайца, тем не менее они не должны быть тонки костью, так как при несоразмерно слабых передних ногах борзая будет пронослиза на угонках — непоимиста. У резвых и достаточно сильных борзых передние ноги костисты, жилисты, не мясисты, так что сквозь кожу видны вены, конечно, правильны, параллельны от плеча до лап и образуют с передними пазанками

* По свидетельству С. С. Кареева, 18-вершковая сука Заирка Калмуц-кого с верхом давала отличных щенят и отлично их выкармливала.

** Маслаками (правильнее мослаки) называются выдающиеся око­нечности папортных костей, т. е. таза, к которым прикрепляются кости задних ног и между которыми помещается крестец. Вертлюги же означают сустав, в котором соединяется задняя нога с папортною костью таза.

(пястью) почти прямую линию (передние ноги в струне). Нельзя, однако, не согласиться с мнением немецких кинологов, что «совер­шенно прямые бабки не имеют надлежащей гибкости — упругости и при остановке на полном скаку вызывают растяжение связок и бывают причиной быстрого утомления и даже вывихов». Сухие ноги спереди всегда кажутся более узкими, чем сбоку, т. е. не кру­глыми; вообще кости передних ног должны быть сплющены с боков.

Задние ноги с мускулами составляют главную часть тела бор­зой, как всякого скакового животного. Наиболее важное значение имеют седалищные мышцы — черные мяса. Старинные псовые, густопсовые в особенности, довольно резко отличались строением задних ног от английских, восточных и отчасти современных псо­вых в том отношении, что все мускулы у них были плоски — не так выпуклы — и длиннее, что зависело от большей длины костей задних ног сравнительно с передними, чего мы не замечаем у дру­гих пород. При широком заде ноги широко расставлены, парал­лельны между собою, если смотреть сзади; при узковатом заде коленки (вернее, пяточные кости) сближаются и зад собаки прини­мает форму коровьего или телячьего.

Следует заметить, что старинные охотники никогда не назы­вали задние ноги с слегка вывороченными наружу лапами пороч­ными, а напротив — считали таковые приметой резвости, вернее пруткости (прыткости, т. е. резвости накоротке). Действительно, параллельные задние ноги и пазанки могут быть красивы только у широкозадой борзой; при узковатом же заде они должны быть широко расставлены, но это еще далеко не коровьи ноги. Во вся­ком случае, такой постанов способствует более свободному и даль­нему закидыванию ног вперед во время скачки и он гораздо пра­вильнее обратного положения постанова ног с вывороченными в поле (наружу) коленками и лапами, вывернутыми внутрь. Собака уже потому может широко расставлять задние ноги, что они очень длинны сравнительно с передними; при этом они могут быть совер­шенно правильными.

Точно также по причине чрезмерной длины задних ног старин­ные русские борзые держали их или сильно вытянутыми назад, или под себя, сильно выгнув спину. Первый постанов встречается ино­гда у английских борзых; второй же свойствен исключительно некоторым псовым и большинству чистопсовых и обусловливает тот верх, который характеризует последних: собака изображает собою как бы согнутую пружину, готовую выпрямиться. Так дер­жат задние ноги олени, козы, зайцы, и очень может быть, что так называемый бросок обусловливается именно таким постановом. Далеко отставленные назад ноги, по-видимому встречавшиеся чаще у обыкновенных псовых и чистопсовых, также придают много красоты собаке, так как она тогда напоминает английскую скаковую лошадь. Это называлось «задние ноги потянулись», «за­дние ноги в струне». У современных псовых, большею частию пря-мостепых и с укороченными задними ногами, оба эти постанова, особенно первый, замечаются редко.

В обоих случаях задние ноги, собственно голени, должны соеди­няться с пазанками под углом, т. е. иметь ясно очерченный сгиб (в противном случае собака будет казаться стоящею на подпорках), однако не настолько, чтобы казаться лучковатыми, т. е. слишком согнутыми. С прямыми и, следовательно, короткими задними ногами (вопрямь) собаки и лошади редко хорошо скачут*, и такие ноги некрасивы даже не у борзых (наприм., пойнтеров, сеттеров), которые именно должны отличаться особенно удлиненными задними конечностями. Прямые ноги без обозначенных коленок всегда имеют удлиненный пазанок, обусловливающий силу, но не быстроту. По мнению немецких кинологов, «очень прямой поста­нов задних ног сильно уменьшает быстроту хода (у легавой) и обыкновенно соединяется с неправильною спиною». У старинных псовых, тем более густопсовых, пазанки были короткие, что по законам зоотехнии весьма выгодно для быстроты движения. Анг­лийским коннозаводчикам это давно известно, и у знаменитых ска­кунов ноги от колен, как передние, так и задние, соответствующие пазанкам, короче, чем у рысаков и других лошадей; то же заме­чается у зайцев. Чем длиннее берцовые кости и, следовательно, их мускулы, тем большие скачки может делать животное. Хотя у оле­ня, козы и других быстроногих зверей задние ноги от коленок (па­занки, бабки) и длинны, но зато скакательный мускул у них необы­чайно широк и полон, т. е. выпукл.

Действительно, если мы примем во внимание, что для быст­роты скачки кроме учащенности скачков важное значение имеет длина прыжка, которая всегда находится в прямом отношении к длине ноги, то мы необходимо должны прийти к заключению, что короткий пазанок необходим, так как он удлиняет ногу вследствие того, что собака, как бы сильно ни вытягивала ногу, всегда ставит ее под углом в скакательном суставе. Кроме этого, при опускании ноги с длинным пазанком на землю потребуется более времени, чем ноге с пазанком коротким, ибо прямая линия от зацепов до

* У очень резвого Завладая Максимова, взявшего первый приз на мос­ковских садках, задние ноги были вопрямь, но зато имели сильно развитые и выдающиеся черные мяса. По моему мнению, задние ноги вопрямь с удли­ненными пазанками встречаются у псовых вследствие атавизма и унаследо­ваны от северных волкообразных собак.

земли будет длиннее. Длинными пазанки не могут быть и потому, что голенная часть у густопсовых длиннее, чем у других пород (Ступишин). Длинный же мускул скорее устает, а потому собака с короткими пазанками не способна к продолжительной скачке. Таким образом, у современных псовых, имеющих более развитые, выдающиеся, хотя укороченные, бедряные мускулы, пазанки должны быть длиннее, чем у густопсовых, не достигая, однако, размеров пазанков, например, лаек.

Во всяком случае, пазанки должны быть сухи, с резко обозна­ченными сухожилиями, а не мясисты. Современная псовая скеле-

Рис. 14. Современная английская борзая («Охотничий календарь»)

Modern ghreyhound
Modern English greyhound

том и мускулатурой приближается более к восточным борзым, чем к старинной псовой, тем более густопсовой; бедряные мышцы у нее, однако, не так выдаются и узловаты, как у английских. Преж­ний характерный постанов задних ног под себя и выгнутость спи­ны — верх — встречаются теперь сравнительно редко. По Озерову, задние ноги должны быть «несколько оттянуты назад (отнюдь не очень), в форме полувзведенного курка; тетива (ахиллесово сухо­жилие, соединяющее коленку, вернее пятку, задних ног с черными мясами) толстая, крепкая, как натянутая проволока; соединение ее с коленом сильно увеличивает ширину последнего».

Лапы у всех русских борзых всегда были более или менее про­долговатые — русачьи. «Которая имеет волчьи ступни, а не ла­пы — отдавать наварщику», — говорил фон Лессин. Однако нельзя не заметить, что курляндские псовые, по-видимому, имели кругло­ватые лапы, особенно задние, и что у густопсовой лапы были кру­глее, чем у псовой. Круглую лапу, если она в комке со слитыми пальцами, нельзя считать недостатком, так как она требуется от английских и встречается нередко у чистопсовых английского происхождения. Совершенно круглая — кошачья — лапа, правда, некрасива, но это дело вкуса: англичанам, напротив, не нравятся узкие русачьи лапы даже у пойнтеров и других пород. У нас всеща русачья лапа считалась признаком резвости: «Чем больше персты у собаки сходствуют с русачьими, признак ее резвости» (Левшин, «Домоводство»).

Это предпочтение действительно имеет практическое основа­ние: между тем как пойнтеру, вообще легавой, необходима широ­кая лапа, которая бы не вязла в болоте и мягкой лесной почве, рус­ским и восточным борзым приходится скакать главным образом по твердой, иногда замерзшей почве залежей, целин, сухих лугов, где узкая и длинная лапа целесообразнее, ибо езда в топь случается редко. У лошадей тоже, как известно, копыта бывают тем Јже, чем почва крепче и каменистее; у северного оленя и лося копыта сравнительно гораздо больше по объему, чем копыта настоящего оленя и козы, тем более серны и горного козла. Русачья, т. е. про­долговатая лапа, как известно, обусловливается неравномерно­стью пальцев (фаланг); у круглой же, кошачьей лапы все пальцы почти одинаковой длины, почему она не может так глубоко ухо­дить в мягкую почву, как узкая русачья.

По-видимому, у всех русских псовых пород задние лапы были значительно больше передних, как у русака, но об этом отличии их от других борзых никем не упоминается; вообще у всех псовых лапы далеко не так малы, узки и плотны, как у крымских, тем более горских борзых, поэтому всегда побеждавших их в жестель и гололедицу. Главное, чтобы лапа соединялась с пазанком не под прямым углом (т. е. не поползла), а под тупым и чтобы пальцы не были распущены, составляли как бы одно целое. Они должны быть собраны в комок, как бы склеены, достаточно, но не чрез­мерно, длинны, с небольшими зацепами (последний сустав с ног­тем) и короткими крепкими ногтями блестяще-черного цвета, упи­рающимися в землю. Стоять собака должна на коготках, так чтобы едва касалась земли подошвами; при постанове задних ног под себя борзая должна, конечно, стоять на пятках (мякишах); пятка не широкая, а продолговатой формы.

Пальцы, обращенные наружу, упираются торцом в землю (Бло-хин); по Губину, пятые пальцы, находящиеся на внутренней сто­роне передних пазанков и неправильно называемые им прибы­лыми*, служат будто борзой для упора во время скачки, при оста­новке и поворотах на угонках. У всех псовых ногти короче и поставлены выше, чем у английских, поэтому первые скакали и ловили по страшной колоти, до крови обдирая себе ноги, ногти же оставались целыми, так как они их не срывали. Еще крепче ногти у горских борзых.

У прежних псовых лапы были с густою подпушью, предохра­нявшей пальцы от холода и ссадин; у современных она замечается редко. Озеров говорит, что подпушка на лапах типична, но требо­вать ее от полевой собаки не всегда возможно, и что от каждого пальца (снаружи) идет косица волос. По замечанию Кашкарова, у помесей и вообще у современных борзых к волосам лап пристает снег; собаки, обгрызая поэтому волос, смачивают его слюной, отчего образуются ледяные шарики между пальцами, причиня­ющие боль собаке и препятствующие быстрой скачке; волосы постепенно выщипываются, подошва оголяется и делается чув­ствительною к холоду. Вероятно, у псовых шерсть содержит более жировых веществ, так что снег не пристает к ней.

Правило (хвост). Все старинные породы псовых, кроме, быть может, чистопсовых, несомненно имели длинное правило. О длин­ных хвостах говорят и фон Лессин и Левшин. Самое название «пра­вило» указывает значение хвоста у борзой, как руля при скачке, и вполне понятно, что у собак, не отличавшихся сильно развитыми черными мясами, более длинный хвост способствовал изворотли­вости при угонках; борзые же с огромными и выпуклыми муску­лами задних ног не нуждаются в длинном руле и могут даже обой­тись вовсе без него, что мы и видим на куцых горках, отлича­ющихся необычайно широким задом. Некоторое значение для длины хвоста имели и рост, и общая неуклюжесть, неповоротли­вость борзой. Самое длинное правило имели курляндские псовые, затем густопсовые, псовые; самое короткое — чистопсовые. Неудивительно поэтому, что в старину длина правила служила даже приметой резвости (вернее, прыткости) и поимистости — изворотливости; для измерения хвоста прежде употреблялся осо­бый прием, а именно: правило пропускалось между задних ног, затем подтягивалось к маслакам; у густопсовых оно должно было непременно доставать ближайшего, а у курляндской — дальнего маслака. Тем не менее хвост никогда не должен был доставать до земли. Собака с очень длинным правилом всегда имеет рыхлый вид, особенно когда хвост слаб, т. е. тонок.

* Прибылыми пальцами, волчьими, шпорами называются обыкно­венно пятые (иногда и шестые) добавочные пальцы на задних ногах, встре­чающиеся сравнительно редко.

У современных псовых хвост должен быть в основании не тоньше большого пальца, ко не мясист и деревянист, а упруг и силен, постепенно утончаясь к концу; лучше, если правило не достает земли вершка на два. Держится оно в спокойном состоянии серпообразно или, еще лучше, с саблевидным выгибом; на ходу оно поднимается на одной линии с туловищем или немного выше. Крутой постанов хвоста на ходу и в особенности кривохвостость, т. е. сваленный на сторону конец правила, считается пороком, так же как свернутый в кольцо или полукольцо конец правила, как у восточных или английских борзых; по замечанию С. Кареева, у псовых, мешанных с крымками или горскими, конец хвоста, когда возьмешь его в руки, сгибается так, что может служить признаком подмеси.

У курляндских псовых, судя по их описанию, конец хвоста всегда приподнимался кверху полукольцом, образуя как бы букву г. В старину такой изгиб не считался, однако, недостатком и у дру­гих псовых. Левшин говорит о правиле, «кверху в кольцо загну­том», а в другом месте («Домоводство»): «Правило длинное, прямо висящее или хотя кольцом на конце вверх загнувшееся, но не сви­слое в сторону».

У псовых хвост одет густою и длинною псовиною, только у курт ляндских он был покрыт кругом короткою волнообразною шерстью, как у двухмесячного псового щенка, то есть был почти голым. У густопсовой подвес (или привесь) на правиле была длин­нее, гуще, чем у псовой, притом не прямая, а волнообразная, даже в завитках (у основания); хвост у них никогда не имел такой густой псовины и не был так тяжел, как у длинношерстных лаек и шот­ландских колли, хотя хвост последних по форме и подвесу имеет немалое сходство с правилом густопсовой, как и сам колли имеет некоторую аналогию с последней. Эта подвесь достигала у густо­псовых 4-х (даже более) вершков длины, не укорачиваясь к кон­цу хвоста, как у сеттеров. С верхней стороны правила псовина должна быть короче, чем на туловище, и постепенно укорачи­ваться к концу.

У современных псовых с сильно развитыми черными мясами вследствие подмеси куцых горских правило значительно укороти­лось, и встречаются борзые не только с правилом вокороте, но и полухвостые, т. е. конец хвоста не достегает даже коленок. Пра­вило вокорот замечается всего чаще между псовыми, происходя­щими от мачевариановских и ермоловских собак; короткий хвост имели также знаменитые трегубовские псовые, которые, несом­ненно, судя по своему богатырскому сложению, также имели при­месь горских. Подвесь теперь редко превышает двухвершховую длину, и на верхней стороне хвоста псовина очень короткая.

Собаки в рыску, при движении, держат правило покруче, т. е. не параллельно земле, а выше, и притом согнутым.

Псовина. Длинная псовина — характерный признак всех псо­вых, которые, вероятно, от этого и получили свое название. Всего длиннее она у густопсовых, причем несомненно, что на длину шер­сти обращалось прежде особенное внимание при подборе произво­дителей: зимой псовина имела 3 — 4 вершка длины на туловище, а на гачах, правиле, сзади передних ног в исключительных случаях достигала почти полуаршина. На шее псовина также сильно удли­нялась, образуя, преимущественно у кобелей, так называемые отчесы, вроде волчьих, которые нередко принимали вид так назы­ваемой муфты, или лис. Волнистость, даже курчавость псовины густопсовые, очевидно, унаследовали от курляндских псовых; хотя прежде и встречались густопсовые в завитках, но завитки все-таки не служили признаком этой породы и большинство охотников предпочитали, как видно, слегка волнистую псовину, допуская завитки только на конце зада и боках (Кареев). Всего замечатель­нее была густота шерсти, ее мягкость, тонина и вместе с тем шел­ковистость, зависевшие, впрочем, главным образом от тщательно­сти содержания.

Обилие псовины у старинных густопсовых причиняло им, одна­ко, более вреда, нежели пользы, так как задерживало линьку, тре­бовало ухода, заставляло собак страдать от жары летом, сильно худеть, ложиться в воду, а в жаркую осень быстро зарьявать и сбав­лять скачки. Старинные псовые имели более короткую и прямую псовину, но более приближались к густопсовым, чем современные. «Псовина и лисы наподобие вихров... Псовина длинная, висящая, какая бы шерсть ни была, наподобие кудели» (фон Лессин). По-видимому, у обыкновенной псовой шерсть на теле не превышала 3 вершков длины, а уборная псовина — четверти аршина; отчесы и баки были у них короче и у сук почти не заметны; на всем теле, кроме груди и брюха, замечался густой подшерсток, псовина же была реже и грубее, т. е. толще, чем у густопсовой, и почти всегда прямая, редко чуть волнистая. У чистопсовых же псовина редко достигала более вершка длины на теле и двух на хвосте, гачах и шее; она была мелхою, блестящею, с густым пушистым подшер­стком осенью и зимою; отчесы небольшие, едва заметные.

Псовина на голове у всех псовых, начиная от ушей и шеи и на ногах спереди, очень короткая, в виде мышиной шерсти, и немного только длиннее от глаз к ушам, но непременно блестящая, атласи­стая и гладкая. Летом все псовые имели укороченную и более ред­кую псовину и лишались пушистого подшерстка. Линька начина­лась у густопсовых с весны (апреля) и продолжалась очень долго — до осени, причем для ускорения линьки собак обыкновенно подма­зывали; то же и у обыкновенных псовых, только они вылинивали незаметно, постепенно теряя псовину по волоску; наконец, чистоп­совые вылинивали в течение двух месяцев — мая и июня (Губин). Следует заметить, что на юге густопсовые и псовые после первой же линьки получают более короткую и редкую псовину и по вне­шности более или менее приближаются к чистопсовым.

Что касается курляндских псовых, то псовина у них, как извест­но, была довольно длинная, кудрявая, в завитках на туловище и очень короткая и атласистая на морде, передних ногах кругом, начиная от локотков, и задних ногах от коленок; на шее она посте­пенно удлинялась к голове, нередко достигая 3-вершковой длины, и имела более крупные завитки; лоб, начиная от глаз до ушей хотя был покрыт такою же короткою псовиною, как на щипце, но псо­вина эта лежала волнообразно, переходя между ушей как бы в завитки, сливавшиеся затем с завитками затылка. Такая волнистая шерсть на задней части черепа замечалась еще у некоторых псовых первых московских очередных выставок, например, у Награждая Н. А. Болдарева и др.

Что касается современной псовой, то по длине и качеству псо­вины она мало отличается от старинной псовой, но нередко имеет более или менее волнистую шерсть. Озеров допускает завитки на шее, слегка волнистую псовину на спине до крестца, более волни­стую на крестце и гачах; на ребрах псовина короче, но с оконечно­сти ребер ниспадает длинными шелковистыми прядями. Большая часть современных псовых завитков не имеет.

Окрас. Типичными окрасами для всех псовых почти едино­гласно считаются серый и половый со всеми их оттенками до чисто-белого и рыжего, включая так называемый голубой (мыши­ный, или пепельный) и бурматный*, а также пегий этих мастей. Преобладание этих окрасов служит одним из веских доказательств происхождения русских борзых от северных волкообразных собак. Красный и чубарый (тигровый, т. е. с темными пятнами и полоса­ми) окрасы характеристичны для английских и отчасти хортых борзых; черный, черно-пегий, также муругий (красная или красно-Цоловая масть с черными кончиками волос и пробивающейся кое-где черною остью)** окрасы свойственны восточным борзым, при­чем мазурина (рыжий окрас различных оттенков с черным щипцом и черными конечностями) встречается всего чаще у горских; подпалины почти всегда указывают примесь крымок; кровные псо-

* Бурматным окрасом называется серый или полбвый различных оттен­ков, как бы подернутый пылью, т. е. грязно-серый или грязно-полбвый. Губин почему-то не признает этого названия и полагает, что слово «бурмат­ный» есть испорченное «муруго-пегий»(!).

** По Мачеварианову, концы ушей черные и черный ремень на спине.

вые не должны иметь ни мазурины, ни подпалин; у них допуска­ются только подласины, т. е. более светлый окрас на морде и коне­чностях, что зависит большею частью от просвечивания подшерс­тка, который всегда бывает светлее ости. Одним из признаков чистокровности псовых многими считается белая кожа и светлый подшерсток. Курляндские псовые тоже были большею частью серого и полбвого окрасов до рыжего включительно, но всегда с черным оттенком.

По справедливому замечанию Ермолова, главное отличие окраса псовых от окраса английских замечается в том, что он не везде так равномерен и так густ по колеру, например, половая и серая псовая к оконечностям всегда бывает окрашена много свет­лее. Что касается чисто-белого окраса, без отметин, то эта масть всегда очень уважалась у псовых, справедливо считаясь признаком кровности; но именно вследствие чрезмерной кровности белая масть должна быть рассматриваема как первая степень альбиниз­ма, а потому белые борзые, особенно густопсовые, в большинстве отличались рыхлостью и слабостью сложения.

Рост и общий вид. Из всех псовых самыми рослыми были кур­ляндские псовые, которые, по преданию, редко бывали менее 18 вершков в загривке и достигали 20 вершков. Этот громадный рост, вероятно, унаследован ими от ирландских волкодавов, скрещивае­мых в прошлом столетии с курляндскими брудастыми и обыкно­венными русскими псовыми. Между густопсовыми также очень часто встречались 18-вершковые кобели, изредка 19-вершковые. К числу таких гигантов принадлежали, например, Сибирь Атрыгань-ева и Победим I Кареева (см. выше). Самая рослая сука из совре­менных псовых, вероятно, Заирка, г. Калмуцкого, которая, по сло­вам С. Кареева, имела 18 вершков в загривке. Очень рослые соба­ки, однако, редко бывают ладны и большею частью бывают бедны задом и лещеваты (исключение составлял Сибирь). Нормальным ростом для современных псовых надо считать, согласно Ермолову, 15 вершков для суки и 17 для кобеля, причем допускаются колеба­ния на вершок в ту и другую сторону, т. е. на вершох больше и на вершок меньше; но рост суки выше 16 (17?) вершков и кобеля выше 18 скорее может считаться недостатком. Почти все извест­ные по резвости собаки были среднего, даже небольшого роста.

За исключением курляндских псовых, отличавшихся довольно непривлекательною и неуклюжею внешностью, все псовые имеют весьма элегантный вид и по красоте и изяществу форм едва ли не занимают первое место в собачьем мире, так как головою превос­ходят английскую борзую. Общий вид псовой борзой, часто смешиваемый с статями, выражается в благородстве и изяществе очертаний головы, чистоте отделки конечностей, в общей пропор­циональности сложки, мягкости блестящей псовины и даже в дви­жениях, полных энергии и огня (Озеров).

К сожалению, у нас до сих пор нет измерений отдельных частей борзых, как это делается в Англии и других странах. Эти размеры, главным образом пропорции между ними, могли бы дать очень вер­ное понятие о складе псовых и разрешить многие споры и недоуме­ния охотников. Не подлежит никакому сомнению, что густопсо­вые, а затем псовые изо всех борзых имеют самую короткую колодку, конечно кобели, так как суки в этом отношении мало отличаются от сук других пород. По Вышеславцеву, правильно сложенный густопсовый кобель должен был помещаться в ква­драте (подобно пойнтеру), то есть «холка (!), концы пальцев пере­дних ног и пятки задних должны составлять квадрат»; верх спины в этом квадрате не умещается. Между современными псовыми вряд ли уже найдутся такие короткие кобели. К сожалению, ими утра­чена также и т. наз. русачья повалка, типичная для старинных собак: почти все теперь лежат на боку, подобно другим неборзым собакам. Утрачены прежняя энергия, бодрость и чуткость, выра­жавшаяся в частом приподнимании ушей и вскакивании. Большин­ство имеют вялый, апатичный вид, в чем можно убедиться на выставках.

Характер псовых различен, смотря по породе, а также воспита­нию. Курляндские псовые были самыми злобными, свирепыми и угрюмыми; густопсовые также большею частию имели суровый характер и были чрезвычайно злы, особенно к чужим собакам, неборзым, которых не могли равнодушно видеть. Воспитанные в комнатах борзые, как всегда в этом случае, становятся более весе­лыми, добродушными, послушными, понятливыми и ласковыми к людям, даже чужим, и их можно приучить не бросаться на собак. Однако как собака очень густо одетая, даже современная сравни­тельно короткошерстная псовая, не говоря о прежних псовых и гус­топсовых, плохо выносит комнатную жизнь и требует большого ухода за псовиной, так как легко подвергается здесь забойке. Очень кровные и избалованные борзые делаются весьма раз­борчивыми в пище, привередливыми, обидчивыми и каприз­ными, а на траве начинают ловить по охотке, когда им вздумает­ся, т. е. утрачивают главные качества борзой — жадность и энер­гию.

Хотя борзая по природе своей и назначению должна быть зла, но далеко не все борзые бывают злобны, так как по охотничьей терминологии злоба и злобность — два совершенно различные понятия. Под злобностью разумеется исключительно врожденная, как бы инстинктивная, ненависть к волку; такие борзые могут быть очень ласковы к людям и, хотя редко, очень миролюбивыми, вовсе не злыми с другими собаками. Телятников («Пр. и охота», 1888, IX) рассказывает о Сокрушае Сошальского и своей Ведьме, которая даже была робкого характера и никогда не грызлась, что они забирались на дроги, где лежал затравленный волк, и начинали его грызть; устанут трепать — закроют глаза и стоят неподвижно, впившись в волка, потом снова начинают трепать; то же самое Ведьма проделывала и с волчьими шкурами. Некоторые особенно злобные борзые впиваются даже в мерзлого волка. Вообще злоб­ностью называется та слепая злоба, которая заставляет таксу впи­ваться в барсучью шкуру, а хорошо притравленную лайку — в мед­вежью.

Особенною злобностью отличались прежде курляндские псо­вые, затем густопсовые, даже носившие поэтому название волко­давов. Большинство старинных псовых тоже брали волков, но пре­имущественно прибылых, и между современными борзыми мало найдется собак, которые бы не брали молодых волков; нередки такие, из-под которых принимают и сострунивают переярков; матерого же волка можно затравить только сворой или двумя из особенно сильных и злобных псовых, так как он несравненно силь­нее всякой борзой. Случаи травли голодного матерого волка одной собакой давно сделались преданием. К таким знаменитым волкода­вам принадлежали Зверь князя Барятинского, Космач Каракозова и немногие другие.

Вообще почти все затравливаемые теперь матерые волки — волчицы, трехгодовалые самцы, очень старые, слабые и больные особи или очень нажравшиеся падали. Это понятно, так как мате­рый волк очень резв и очень силен и его надо сначала догнать, затем осилить; к сожалению, злобность крайне редко совмещается с резвостью: очень резвые борзые плохо берут волка и, видя в нем очень опасного противника, часто только щиплют его за гачи. Многие собаки, хорошо берущие прибылых, при травле матерого, даже переярка, сбавляют скачки, скачут не всеми ногами. Мате­рый, бывавший в переделках волк очень хорошо понимает это и дает себя щипать за гачи заячницам. «Но вот спущены три кобеля, хорошо берущие волка; волк покосился, мгновенно сообразил по той решительности, с которой они неслись к нему, что из этого может выйти, и в тот же миг вся фигура его преобразилась: голова опустилась ниже, шея вытянулась, толстым пушистым наростом поднялся загривок на его холке, могучие ноги замахали чаще» (Жо-мини).

Дело в том, что матерый волк хотя и очень резов, но не пруток, и только пруткая борзая может догнать его при обыкновенных условиях. А. И. Новиков полагает, что даже лихая борзая, т. е. исключительной резвости, может добраться до матерого волка не более как с расстояния 120 сажен. Но кроме резвости материк тре­бует от собак особенных злобности и силы. Только очень злобные борзые берут мертво, а не вотхват, и по месту, т. е. в ухо, шиворот или в горло, так как лишь при таком приеме они могут быть в без­опасности от волчьих хваток. При всем том матерый волк настолько силен, что он свободно тащит двух, даже трех влепив­шихся в него борзых; часто он, остановившись, подбивает под шею собак, держащих его за горло, задние ноги, взмахивает ими, и собаки отлетают в разные стороны; между тем злобная борзая так крепко стискивает челюсти, что ее с трудом может оторвать за ошейник даже очень сильный человек.

Настоящими волкодавами могут быть названы только те бор­зые, которые берут волка по месту и без отрыва, т. е. у которых, как у бульдогов, сводит судорогой мускулы челюстей; следователь­но, мускулы эти должны быть сильно развиты. Только из-под таких надежных злобачей можно принимать переярка, а при удаче и матерого. Самым лучшим приемом считается прием в глотку и горло, который иногда (неправильно) называют глоточным хва­том, так как волк начинает задыхаться; бывали примеры, что он оказывался даже задушенным. Однако, по замечанию знатоков (А. И. Новикова), борзые, которые захватили волка за шиворот или в ухо, держат крепче, как бы замирая, без отрыва; собака же, захватившая в горло, хотя не отрывается, но от времени до вре­мени она старается как бы глубже впиться в горло, вероятно, пото­му, что раздражается хриповатыми звуками в горле волка и, стало быть, сознает, что она не задушила его. Многие злобачи теряют при этом сознание, закрывают глаза, как бы лишаются чувств и продолжают держать уже принятого (приколотого) волка, так что приходится прибегать к чрезвычайным мерам — приподнимать задние ноги, дуть в ухо, обливать водой (?). Некоторые собаки при этом настолько озлобляются, что бросаются на охотника.

Хотя все сильные и рослые борзые, какой бы ни было породы, по природе своей должны быть злобны к волку, однако настоящих волкодавов с правильным приемом очень мало. Натравливанием и частою практикой можно добиться удачной травли прибылых и иногда переярков, но беззаветная злобность, равно как и сноровка в приеме, — врожденные качества, передающиеся по наследству. Перегодовавшие кобели назимовской породы прямо брались на охоту вместе со старыми собаками и брали мертво, по месту, а если получали хватку, то брали еще злобнее, между тем как обыкно­венно молодые борзые после хваток начинают бояться волка. Точно так же, как злобность борзых может быть развита практи­кой в течение нескольких поколений, злобность легко может быть ими утрачена, если потомством злобных собак будут травить толь­ко зайцев. Полевая практика, то есть травля вольных, хотя бы мо­лодых, волков несравненно действительнее травли садочных, кото­рых собаки берут неохотно, во-первых, потому, что они большею частию сильно воняют, а во-вторых, потому, что травленный на садках волк не бежит, а чаще останавливается в оборонительном положении, так что собаке трудно подступиться к нему без хватки. Преимущество же борзой именно заключается в том, что она прытче волка и может его сначала опрокинуть, а затем поме­ститься в горло или шиворот лежащему. Некоторые собаки опро­кидывают волка грудью, другие, приспев к волку, дают ему такой «ровок» в гачу, что он летит через голову, и тогда, пользуясь моментом, приемистая борзая берет его по месту и держит без отрыва.

Главное качество борзой, однако, не злобность, а резвость, быстрота скачки, мерилом которой всегда служит заяц, преимуще­ственно русак. Старинные псовые, густопсовые и курляндские псо­вые, предназначавшиеся большею частию для травли на коротких перемычках, отличались от хортых и восточных борзых главным образом пруткостью, т. е. резвостью накоротке, сдавая скачки при ловле на большом расстоянии, т. е. скоро уставая, выбиваясь из сил. Хортые и все вислоухие борзые, напротив, пригоднее для травли в открытых местностях, так как, обладая большею силою, могут скакать гораздо более продолжительное время. Чистопсо­вые, а также псовые с подмесью восточной или английской крови и современные псовые обладают, так сказать, мешаными каче­ствами, т. е. достаточными пруткостью и силою, но необычайная пруткость в соединении с огромною силою, неутомимостью, так наз. лихость, всегда, тем более теперь, встречалась между рус­скими борзыми в виде редкого исключения. По мнению А. В. Жи­харева, хотя общий уровень резвости горских борзых* был выше уровня резвости его псовых, но между последними чаще выражива­лись собаки необычайной резвости. Замечателен тот факт11, что едва ли не большинство борзых, знаменитых резвостью (Сердеч­ный Кологривова, Отрадка Хомякова и др.), представляли первую помесь псовых с горскими, и в них счастливо соединялись прут-кость и бросок первых с силою вторых. Интересно также, что все лихие борзые — это такое же исключительное явление, как гении между людьми.

Пруткость псовых, т. е. резвость накоротке, в значительной мере зависит от манеры поскачки, совершенно отличной у них от поскачки хортых и восточных борзых. Густопсовые и обыкновен­ные псовые, если в них не было примеси, скачут без исключения

* Следует заметить, что в знаменитых жихаревских горках была подмесь крови псовых.

варкою (учащенною) поскачкою, как бы изгибаясь змееобразно, вытянув шею и как бы кладя голову на ноги. «С приподнятою же головою, подобно хортым, скакать им было невозможно, во-пер­вых, потому, что они все более или менее низкопередые, а во-вто­рых, оттого, что они слишком далеко заносят задние ноги вперед, так что туловище ставят почти перпендикулярно земле, и если бы не вытягивали при этом шею, то опрокидывались при каждом прыжке. Это резко бросается в глаза, когда густопсовая стоит без своры и внезапно увидит зверя: первый ее взмах невольно заставит содрогнуться от боязни, что она опрокинется и расшибется» (Сту-пишин). Когда смотришь вугон, собака катится как шар, и, глядя со стороны, трудно рассмотреть ее проворные машки. Напротив, вытяжная редкомахая поскачка свойственна вообще собакам силь­ным, степным; мешаные русские псовые с небольшою примесью степной борзой большею частию имеют поскачку скорее редкома-хую, но спешную, и только на броске, если он есть, зачастят (Ер­молов).

Кроме пруткости, все старинные русские борзые (псовые, гус­топсовые, курляндские псовые и чистопсовые) отличались от всех хортых и восточных борзых своим броском, нераздельно связан­ным с пруткостью. «Бросок — это тот быстрый, молниеносный страшный порыв, который резвая собака делает к поимке зверя» (Мачеварианов). «Бросок, или кидок (кидка), есть способность кровной (?) собаки, приспев на известное расстояние (от 3 до 15 саж.) к зайцу, метнуться к нему пулей» (Ермолов). «Кидок, — по определению Кареева, — когда собака доспеет к русаку на рассто­яние 8 — 9 саж., как молния наддает и моментально бросается на него. Эти-то два усиленные скачка, в которых часто бывает 7, а у крупных собак даже до 9 аршин, что можно видеть по пороше, и называются кидкою».

The throw, although it is the affiliation of the dogs, but, according to Macevarianov and Ermolov, in dogs with a mixture of mountain or Crimean amplified, lengthens; so, for example, a dog exclusively dog blood will throw to the hare in 3 - 4 seedlings from him, but such a mixed dog, having boarded the seedlings 8 - 10 to the hare, rushes past the most fervent dog and carries away the beast from under the nose. In dogs dashing, exceptional frisky, the throw reaches 15 soot. and even more (by Machevarianov, up to 20-th). It often happens that the front dog breaks its mouth to grab the mermaid, and the dog, which was in the back, suddenly finds itself in front with a hare in his teeth or repackows with him. The speed of the throw is compared with the volts of stone swifts, the rapid fall of the falcon on the flying prey, and the strength of it can be judged from the fact that the dog on the throw, hitting the slant on the front leg of the horse, knocked her grandmother, so that the horse fell along with the rider (Machevarianov). It is not uncommon for a greyhound to hit a stump on a roll and stay in place, shattered. In general, catching with a throw is almost always through the head, i.e. the dog was outsoughn or fell with a russak; she killed him with her breasts, smashing his ribs or hind legs. Kurland dogs are almost always "beaten like a field." It is easy to conclude that the manner of pumping dogs and their rod is not conducive to the squeveli, especially with the dodge of the hare.

Throw, i.e. the ability to throw a bullet to the beast, occurs in many animals waiting for prey, especially in the genus of cats. To some extent, it is noticed in many northern barks, which often, suddenly seeing near the beast, catch up with him with a short desperate effort. Probably, this ability of wolf-shaped dogs was inherited by canines as forest greyhounds, only it got from them huge development due to the special conditions of baiting in wooded areas. The throw, first, develops an island ride with a flock of hounds, and with the abundance of the beast (hares), and secondly, the terrain - clearings and jumpers; thirdly, I'm only bullying from a pack. Under these conditions, the throw sometimes develops even in mountain greyhounds. On the contrary, the dog in the steppe when hunting in the race and without a pack most of the throw loses the throw: the dog moderates its fervor, it is not excited by the rut of the pack, bullying neighbors and stretched pack. It is not surprising, therefore, that at present, due to the change in the nature of dog hunting, the throw is found only in a few canines,the fro clearly proved the capital's gardens.

Без всякого сомнения, резвость, пылкость и сила скачки в зна­чительной мере обусловливаются известным сложением, правиль­ностью ладов и главным образом развитием зада и задних ног. Зна­ток при взгляде на собаку может почти всегда определить, тупа ли она, резва ли вообще, прутка или способна к продолжительной скачке. Неудивительно поэтому, что правильности ладов всегда и везде придается такое важное значение. Но все-таки одних рабочих ладов — крепких ног и хороших мускулов — недостаточно: в собаке должна быть кровь, порода, значение которых давно соз­нано коннозаводчиками. Точно так же, как известно немало знаме­нитых скакунов с порочным экстерьером — вывороченными наружу ногами, растянутою и провислою спиною, так точно и "между кровными борзыми встречаются вовсе неладные собаки значительной резвости. Отсюда известный парадокс: не по ладам собака скачет, а по породе. Никто не станет спороть о том, что есть еще нечто, кроме силы мускулов, — это энергия нервной системы, дозволяющая делать иногда сверхъестественные усилия, и что эта нервная энергия в особенности развита у кровных живот­ных.

Между охотниками известно немало примет резвости борзых, как взрослых, так и в щенячьем возрасте, примет, впрочем, не всегда имеющих какое-либо основание. По фон Лессину, короткий и тупой соколок — «признак не ловцов». До сих пор многие счи­тают длину правила приметой резвости. Левшин утверждал, что надо выбирать щенков, у которых «черепная кость остра, с малым раздвоением», а в другом месте, что «сарновая кость (т. е. длинное последнее ребро) считается признаком резвой и сильной в полях собаки». То же говорил и Губин, только сарновой костью он назы­вает одно лишнее или два ребра (т. е. с обеих сторон) в виде небольшой косточки, которая очень редко бывает видна, а только может быть прощупана и встречается лишь у немногих собак выда­ющейся резвости. Вторая примета, по Губину, заключается в длине таза и, следовательно, расстоянии от последнего спинного позвонка до первого хвостового; расстояние это может равняться от 2 до 6 пальцев; наконец, третья примета у Губина — особенно длинные и острые нижние клыки.




Crimean Greyhound
Saint Petersburg. Casting - casting of the bronze workshop of I.I. Yushkov, circa 1840.


Hunters & Borzois from Atkarsk, Saratov. (Link)

         This story was written by Elena Badikova and published in the newspaper "Atkarsk News"     Olga Zilberman published it and Andrus Kozlov commented on the article:  "About Nikolai Mikhailovich Karakozovs dogs (1809-1866) and about the Borzoi Kosmach written in the book by L. Sabaneeva - so this is not a journalists fiction". 

Link to the book of L. Sabaneeva 


                                                                                                          Aristocratic dogs

Many people remember the scene of a hound hunt from the film "Peculiarities of the nationality of the hunt" Under the sounds of a hunting horn, a pack of elegant greyhounds drives a wolf through the snow, a hunter in a red Hungarian coat knits a predator alive with his bare hands. Borzoi, these amazingly beautiful dogs of a traditionally Russian breed, were once bred in Atkarsky district. 

The endless Atkar expanses with an abundance of beasts were the best suited for the favorite noble fun - hunting with greyhounds. She was considered a noble occupation that required courage, daring, passion - after all, they hunted with greyhounds without a gun, in a frantic race through the fields. Hares and foxes were poisoned with greyhounds, but the pinnacle of hunting skill was to take a wolf alive. Packs of wolves raged along the banks of the Bear, slaughtered flocks of sheep and attacked foals.

Each wealthy Atkar landowner kept dozens, if not hundreds, of Russian hound dogs on his estate. Elegant aristocratic dogs were the pride of the owners. Breeding and training greyhounds was considered a special art. They were served by a whole staff of hounds, and each had its own functions: the rider raised and trained the dogs, the scruffy led the pack on the hunt, the stirrup led the pack of the owner or guests of honor. 

In the first half of the 19th century, the village of Lomovka, the estate of Nikolai Mikhailovich Karakozov, was the center for breeding greyhounds in Atkarsk district. Atkar police chief Karakozov (as the police chief was called in the 19th century) was a passionate hunter and devoted his life to breeding a special kind of hunting dogs that got his name. Greyhounds of Karakozov were famous far beyond the borders of the Saratov province - tall, fast, powerful, with thick hair. They were famous for their particular viciousness and the owner brought them out specially for hunting a wolf.

Hunters wrote legends about the famous Karakozov wolfhound named Kosmach. Usually greyhounds worked in a pack, but Kosmach did not hunt with other dogs, did not chase hares, he hunted hungry hardened wolves alone and took them one on one. The brave Kosmach went down in the history of Russian hunting, and the Russian writer Dmitriev sang his duel with the wolf in the hunting story "Pari". So the glory of Kosmach outlived the fame of his master.

Along with the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the "golden age" of Russian hound hunting ended. Greyhound owners lost their serf dogs, and the number of dogs dropped dramatically. But true Atkar hunters kept the traditions of hunting with greyhounds for a long time. Even before the First World War, large canine hunts were organized on the estate of the leader of the nobility of the Atkar district, Nikolai Viktorovich von Harder.

The revolution put an end to the history of the Atkar greyhounds - aristocratic dogs disappeared simultaneously with their owners, the kennels were destroyed along with the manor estates. And the centuries-old tradition of Russian hound hunting has irrevocably sunk into the past.


Text author: Elena BADIKOVA




Presentation of Egor Driansky.

Егор Дриянский ( Egor Drijanskij) «Записки мелкотравчатого» ( first edition 1857) Mелкотравчатый= a suitable synonym may be "small". That is, the autor speaks of hunters who did not have a complete hunt (a large number of borzois and hounds), like rich landowners. They ( melkotravtschatyi) only had a couple of packs of borzois. (Andrus Kozlov)

Little is known about this writer. It seems that the definition of "forgotten" does not suit any other author in the history of Russian literature of the 19th century, but in the case of Dryansky it is filled with some special meaning. After all, it seems that fate itself has ordered that the meager and almost always joyless information about his life receded into the background before the amazing world that you discover in his books. And perhaps it is not by chance in our time, when man, as if having caught up, again and again tries to comprehend his relationship with nature, written more than a hundred years ago works by Yegor Eduardovich Driyansky with their main theme: people, earth, sky, animals and birds - come back to the reader, become necessary in his movement into the future.    E. E. Driyansky was the author of one novel, wrote something about ten stories, short stories and essays, two plays. From 1851 to 1872 he collaborated in almost all major Russian magazines. Somewhere since the mid-60s, the writer began to think about the results of his creative activities. "You see,-- he wrote to S.V. Maksimov in November 1865,-- in the third year the deceased Apollo Grigoriev addressed me with an offer from Stellovsky (F. T., a well-known book publisher.-V. G.) about the complete collection of my things...

All things will be up to fifteen, and with all the sheets near a hundred..." "Citation by K.: Yegolev P.E. On the author of "The Note of the Small-Grass".-- In the K.: Driyansky E. E. Notes of the small-grassed. M.--- L., 1930, p. 30.    But less than ten years later, as the results had to be summed up by his friends. "Dear Misha,-- Alexander Ostrovsky wrote to his brother on December 4, 1872,-- Egor Driyansky at the last breath: need, raw apartments broke his iron health and brought to a bitter consumption. In a dark corner, behind Presnya, without a piece of bread, without a penny of money dies the author of "The Gifts of Kvochka," "Quartet," "Ace," "Panych," "Candy" etc., such works, which in any, even rich literature would be in plain sight, and we went unnoticed and did not deliver to the creator-artist anything but grief. Now it is too late to scold him for impracticality, for khokhlatsky stubbornness, for inability to show the goods face; Now we have to help him. Do mercy, write to someone from the Literary Fund to rush the help of the unfortunate Dryansky (formalities this time can be circumvented).... Ostrovsky A. N. Poln. op.    Ostrovsky's letter was reported at the 32nd meeting of the Literary Fund Committee, and on December 18 the needy writer was allocated 100 rubles.  "To understand how this help was in time and to the place,-- thanked ostrovsky Treasurer Litfond,-- it was necessary to see how Driyansky was baptized, taking money"    That winter, Moscow newspapers reported on the production in the Small Theatre of the new comedy Ostrovsky "There was not a penny, but suddenly Altyn" - Ostrovsky will write To Nekrasov about "crazy, rabid y.

Ostrovsky was, of course, right in his assertion that Driyansky's best things, the works of the "creator-artist", went unnoticed in the then literature. In fact: if his first compositions and there were positive reviews in the press (among them first of all should be singled out the assessments of Apollo Grigoriev), soon they changed characteristics from private correspondence, and then complete silence.    Another conclusion of Ostrovsky is confirmed that these things did not bring Dryyansky anything but grief. The best commentary to it can serve as letters of the writer, especially the last. They are talking about poverty, "pure poverty" when there is no 1 ruble 19 cents in the pharmacy today, and tomorrow the money may not be for "more necessary need", that is, for a funeral. In one of the letters of the late 60's the writer tried to summarize the experience of his literary and other misadventures: "You know, I am not a fatalist and believe that all inconsistencies and failures depend solely on our inability to wield the case, from impracticality, incalculability and from such reasons, but I have the right to say that I am the exceptional person for whom I am invented. For example, I firmly believe that if I have to cross the street tomorrow in order to get something desired, even due in the sense of interest, by all means in the middle of the street will be either a  

Ostrovsky's opinion on which works Driyansky to consider the best was shared by many other writers of their circle, as the author himself believed. For most Driyansky was the creator of "Odarka" and "quartet" - and this served as a sufficient recommendation (in any case, in the memories of contemporaries and their correspondence, his name most often appears with such an explanatory characteristic). The "p." that is, about other works of the writer, somehow was not remembered.    Perhaps the only exception was S.V. Maximov. On Driyansky's letters to him the addressee's hand for reference is confidently stated: "The letter of the author of "The Note of the Small-Grass." Gradually, this point of view prevailed: it is known that "Notes" highly appreciated and used in his works Chekhov, read and praised Bunyan, that among the connoisseurs of "Melkotravit" belonged to A. M. Remizov and M. M. Prishvin.    In 1930, the famous historian of literature P. E. Shchegolev reissues Driyansky's book and in his foreword calls it "the best of hunting books", puts on a par with the famous hunting notes of S.T. Aksakov,  "The Hunts of the Hunter" by I.S. Turgenev, brilliant pages written about the hunt of Leo Tolstoy. That is, he puts on a par with the best, classical examples of the great Russian prose of the 19th century. And authoritatively asserts: "Not only hunting book, but also universal and artistic," "written by the pen of a first-class master."    But what is this book that overshadowed all other works of Driyansky? What are "Notes of the small-grassed" that allow their author to claim a place of honor in Russian literature with full right and how do they differ from other, classic hunting notes?

"I am sending you, the amiable Alexander Nikolaevich, an article in "The Mix" ,-- wrote to Driyansky Ostrovsky from Ranenburg in the summer of 1850. It's up to you to score. My job was to do as well as I could. The truth was started by her first without the basic idea, and so simple, shoulder! But, having delved after the case, when it went smoother, I find that this department is an inexhaustible source for the pen, and therefore, perhaps, neither to the village, nor to the city dubbed it "Small-grassed" and placed so that later it will be possible to develop them as a soulmate of anything"    So carelessly began the story of "The Note," the first passage of which is titled "Small-traumatic. Essay from the Hunting Life" appeared in No. 2 "Moskvitian" in 1851. Let's just say it's a coincidence. "Small-grassed" were printed in the department "Blend," "so to speak, on the margins of the magazine," according to Shchegolev. And four years earlier, the first essay from Turgenev's "The Huntsman's Note" was published in the "Mix" of the January book "Modernist". Or, as P.V. Annenkov wrote about it: "... in one corner of the magazine the story "Khor and Kalinych" shone like a guiding star rising on the horizon" (Annenkov P. V. Literary Memoirs. M., 1960, p. 395. In the future, both of these works were printed  Aksakov's book is indeed much more specific and as if "scientific" works of Turgenev and Driyansky. In the center of his notes - animals and birds, a man with his own human psychology, passions are eliminated from this world or, more precisely, obeys him and serves as a faithful reflection of it. He is a naturalist observer who observes -- and according to Aksakov it means: and loves and dishes, that is, with love protects,-- opened to him as if for the first time the beauty and complexity of the natural world, not wanting to mix and spoil them with their own complexity. This observer (but not a hunter as the main actor) seems to be in the auditorium, on the stage of which unfolds a great and quite independent action - the life of nature. His main characters - feathered and four-legged - indifferent to man, it seems, may well do without him, but man is already beginning to guess that nature has its own soul and freedom. And this guess, a guess about the relative, though forgotten, leads to participation, love, even if still  unrequited.    It's very different for Turgenev. Hunting as such interests him least - the hunter he masquerade, "weird" (i.e. third-party, outsider on the hunt), according to the reviews of many contemporaries, in particular I. I. Panayev. Beautiful hunting and landscape descriptions in "The Huntsman's Notes" are only lyrical digressions, a kind of poem in prose. Descriptions of nature compositionally organize the book, give it a general light tone; they can merge with its main theme, can contrast with it, but never self-satisfied. Roughly speaking, hunting here is only an external reason for the manifestation of the poetic "sense of nature" of the narrator, a conditional organizational technique to solve a completely different problem: images of the world of people, "agricultural class", large-scale social generalizations.  And finally, Driansky. Hunting is important for him. Hunting as a process, as an independent social institution, as a phenomenon that changes the usual relationship between people, between man and beast and makes you remember the common, related "great basis" of these relations. There is something in common with Aksakov's approach to the world, but if the Aksakov hunter, lurking on one mgst, caresses nature with his loving, attentive gaze, then the hunter Driyansky invades it with passion, instinctively realizing that he will meet an equally strong reciprocal The reader, who did not hold a gun,-- rightly wrote about the "Small-grassed" Yegolev,-- has no idea about hunting, dogs and so on, suddenly imbued with the moods and interests of the hunter, enters into all the details of hunting sport. He becomes close and native psychology of the gona, the psychology of fighting the beast, make clear and exciting experiences of the dog and the person arising from their joint work" (Driyansky E. E. Notes of the small-grassed, p. 4.    Many of the differences between Driyansky's book and Aksakov and Turgenev's notes stem from the originality of the material itself. After all, dog hunting, as well as its air counterpart - falconry, a lot of ancient most other hunts, including shotgun. The gun in the hands of the hunter shows that between the world of animals and birds and man lay an impassable border and man can break it only with the help of an alien to this world object - the product of human development, civilization, and he enters this world master-conqueror, dictating their terms. Gun hunting is a struggle of notoriously unequal rivals, and certainly the ethical moment was decisive in the strangeness of the Aksakov book that there is no gun-hunting in the notes of the gun hunter as such -- it is only implied. This is the original premise, set, but left outside the book condition.    The gun hunter is usually lonely, during the hunt he does not belong to a human or any other collective. If he for humane reasons forgets about the gun, will become a naturalist-hunter, a writer-hunter (and the word "hunter" will necessarily be in second place), he will still remain in the sphere of human culture, and his loneliness will be even more noticeable:it is not by chance that in this area the formula "alone with nature" has been established.    The relationship between a hunter and a friend, a legal dog - a cast with the inequality of relations in human society. The dog is here, of course, and a friend, but most importantly - a faithful servant, looking for and bringing the killed game.    Not so in dog hunting. Here between man and beast stands essentially another beast, only in the greater or lesser steppes tamed, domesticated and therefore holding the side of man. The main struggle takes place between representatives of one and almost one world, the person - first of all a concerned witness of the dog hunt, and then a participant of its finale. Here the power passes into his hands, he rises above the stage as the main organizer and the real master of his conceived, and carried out by the beasts action, he decides their fate and receives their prey. It is no coincidence that on a fresco in the southwestern tower of Sofia Kiev, which depicts an ancient scene of hunting tarpans (wild horses), the situation is so close to dog hunting, only on the place of dogs depicted pardus (tamed cheetahs).

The hound can violate the will of the sent her, turn her enemy, encroach on the property of a man - pets. And these violations of human law are regarded not by the laws under which the right of only the person is recognized, but by the oldest, where man and the beast are equal and, having entered into a struggle (or concluding a union), are equally responsible for their actions: whether it is murder or attempted property. A man is stronger than a dog, he subordinated it to his will, it became his property. But he also because of the laws of dog hunting, recognizes her right to protest, the manifestation of animal freedom is responsible for the poor endurance of the pack is himself as a catch hunter. In "Notes of the Small-Grass" the boy Funtik dies on the hunt, but it is not just an accident, not a tragic exception to the order of life justice, but a reminder of the natural and just order when the victim can respond to the killer in the same way.  At the very end of "Small-traumatic" made the following statement: "... the right serious dog, like any other hunt, is a kind of science, to which, I will conclude with the words of the catchy Theopen: "No, I'm not going to do it."    How professionally followed this statement in his book Driyansky, you can see, comparing it with special guides for dog hunting Reutt and Wenceslavsky, which has already done in his time P. M. Machevarianov - "professor of hunting" as it was called contemporaries. "E. E. Driyansky,-- he wrote in "Notes of the Dog Hunter of the Simbir Province" ,-- in his beautiful, the living hunting story "Notes of the small-grassed" expressed about the dog hunt a hundred times more, more useful and instructive for inexperienced hunters, than how much is written in both of the above guides" "The Macchevarians P. M. Notes of the dog hunter of the Simbir province. Already in the 19th century, the "Small-grassed" begin to be invoked in the resolution of professional disputes, their authority in matters of dog hunting becomes indisputable. "Would you like to look into the book "Notes of the small-grassed" Mr. Driyansky,-- advises his opponent the author of one of the articles in a special "Journal of Hunting" (1876, No. 3),-- see how the newly rescued dog Karai -- then you will  see how the newly rescued dog Karai -- then you will have the concept of how to catch a frisky dog of two or three autumns, i.e. in the pore."    The most detailed book driyansky already familiar to us "Russian hunting bibliography" by N. Y. Anofriev (Brest-Litovsk, 1905): "The famous story of hunters depicting dog hunters of the time of serfdom. The story is written wonderfully lively, beautiful hunting and literary language and is considered a model of stories about dog hunting. This story is the best board book of every hunter. The main faces depict the hunters known then: Aleev - Kareev, Batsoya - Nithlev, and Count Atukayev - Count Palen. The book is rare, it costs up to 8 rubles."  Shchegolev considered the reference to the prototypes of the characters of "Melkotraved" "more a product of a hunting legend than a historical reality." Obviously, here played a decisive role traditionally skeptical approach to any hunting (or fishing) statement, claiming to be reliable. But this time the tradition of "hunting" tradition turned out to be extremely documentary.    Here's how Driyansky describes in "Small-traumatic" dogs "brotherly breed" bred by Aleev hunters: "... eleven young dogs were led on the thieves; looking at them, it was hard to believe that these were puppies. I don't know what my hunters thought, but I was aware that this is the beauty, articles and growth of dogs I see for the first time in my life."    And now compare this excerpt with an excerpt from the "Report on the 2nd regular exhibition of dogs and horses in Moscow" by A. E. Korsh, placed in No. 3 "Journal of Hunting" for 1876: "We will win - a man of sex and a half-life of 1 arshin 3 vera (84 cm. - G.) "The growth is huge for a greyhound dog, so huge that we have seen only the second dog like this..." We won a big silver medal at the 1st regular exhibition. The second "such dog" mentioned in his report A.E. Korsh - Award (growth 1 arshin 2 top), "as the best representative of the Russian breed of dog dogs", received a large gold medal at the 1st exhibition. "Reward -- a year-old Victorious, a dog of the Kareev breed... S.S. Kareev's dogs go all from Nayan, owned by the late Al. Nick. Kareeva, who brought out a very dog, a beautiful and vicious breed of dogs, which has achieved considerable fame ... and described in the "Notes of the Small-Grassed" by Driyansky."    In 1875-1876, the pages of the "Journal of Hunting" erupted into controversy over the "rules of breed" of dog dogs. It was started by a certain N.P. Ermakov. Soon he was answered by S.S. Kareev. His article with the expressive title "Heart is not a stone - did not suffer and spoke" was signed by the author's name and the instruction: "Ranenburg County, Bratovka" (remember that it is from Raedburg - now the city of Chaplygin, the district center of the Lipetsk region, Driyansky sent his letter about "Melkatrats" Ostrovsky in the summer of 1850). Controversy was conducted with constant references to "Notes of the small-grassed", mentioned Count Palen and other prototypes of the heroes of "Melkotrav", and it was discussed about the "grandfather's and great-grandfather traditions" of the content of the "brother's breed" - S.S. Kareev prepared for the release of the book "One Hundred Years of The Punishian Hunt."

So, Driyansky erects a spacious building "Melkotravitny" from the bricks of documentary, "portrait" fact. But this fact is instructive of its dissimilarity to the momentary, "photographic" picture of natural life given by Aksakov, on the applied accuracy of Turgenev's "hunting" view. It is taken from the world of dog-hunting - a "portrait" of legendary, bygone times, a world cherished by its resemblance to this "portrait" of its "grandfatherly and great-grandfather traditions". Unlike any other and hunting "science." After all, the genealogy of any dog seeks to ideally find out how long ago the animal was tamed by man and whether he has preserved for a number of generations the "noble" purity of its natural, wild "breed" despite communication with the man who changed this past.    Changing the relationship between man and dog, hunting transforms and relationships between people. In "Small-traumatic" widely represented the life of small-town nobility with its often ugly forms of family life (Peter Ivanovich and Karolina Fedorovna); Count Atukayev can be carried out by the weaknesses of his jester and slacker Petrunchik, in short, the life and manners of serfdom Russia are shown in all their unsightlyness. But hunter Atukayev is no higher than other hunters, he bows to the professional authority of Aleev, unconditionally obeys the will of the catching Theopen. The team of hunters is a kind of social utopia, a primitive brotherhood of people in the face of nature. "No, you, brother, don't joke about it! now you yourself are the one who is in the name of a dog hunter, or a member of this fraternity.    And the same utopian laws of hunting allow the dexterous Danila at Tolstoy to threaten with a raised arapnik on his master, and he is forced to confer, to be afraid of his own serf. When the hunt is over, the old count's appeal to Danila: "However, brother, you are angry" reminds that everything has returned to its place.

Plato's place as a philosopher in the hunting utopia of "Melkotravchatny" is occupied by the catchy Theopen - a character whose proximity to the heroes of antiquity betrays the rare sound of his name (Theopen is a Russified form of the ancient Greek name Theopempt, translated - "God sent"). Theopen - a miracle worker who knows thoroughly all the intricacies of the catching business, able to "stand" the pack, that it amazes even experienced hunters. This is a real, not created by human arrogance "king of nature", a real pagan god of hunting, an ancient and powerful, full-powered lord and friend of his dogs, ready for them and with them to pass all the tests. Catcher Driyansky is an artist whose high intentions are inaccessible to ordinary people and can only be understood by a person of close, artistic, nature. This is the dodgy Odysseus, next ahead of the hunting train and, as the hunt begins to occupy more and more space, more and more growing in the eyes of the reader. The pinnacle of his skill -- hunting in the vast steppe of Countess Otakoito, the apotheosis of sweeping -- in a brilliant antics with distant and detours that blocked the way to this steppe. "Daniel Tolstoy, Theopen Driyansky and Leontii Bunina (from the story "The Catcher", 1946 -- W.G.) -- three immortal literary types in hunting literature" ,-- rightly concludes the modern researcher of this literature N. Smirnov "Smirnov N. Hunting language as a kind of folk speech.-- In the alm.: Hunting spaces, i.e. 15. M., 1960, p. 249."    There are two worlds in "Notes of the Small-Grass" and each of them has its own dimensions: social, spatial, temporal, linguistic. The world of hunting is only an island in the vast spaces of the Russian world, but this island carries a full measure of beauty and justice, the enduring value of which lies at the heart of the entire universe. We called hunting a kind of utopia, and the originality of this utopia is primarily that it really exists ("utopia" with The Greek---place, which does not exist), it is part of the actual existence of the world, not a distracted ideal, an unattainable norm. People and nature act in hunting as a single and indissoluble whole, but this whole lives by the laws of nature, and man here is only a guest, he only "goes hunting" and lives in a completely different place. This is the real utopian nature of hunting. Although the connection between the big and the small is not forever destroyed, as it persists between hunting (hunting the beast) and hunting (desire). "Hunting is the nature of man," "hunting is fun" ,-- the proverb says.    In "Notes of the fine-grassed" two times: one historical, with all the exact signs of the life of Russia in the middle of the last century, the other - the time of the hunt itself - the natural, "rich time" of the Russians and Homer's epic. And the second beginning, as the story develops, wins in Driyansky's book. There's no plot in "Small-Traumatic." Its movement is replaced by the movement of hunting, hunting train. And with each step of hunting man more and more approaches nature, his connection "with all the connected forces of the world" (M. M. Prishvin) becomes stronger. In the end comes their complete fusion: over the world of "Small-grassed" is raised in its timeless and extraspatial essence the image of hunting "paradise" - the steppe of the Countess of Otakoito - "one hundred and twenty thousand tithes of land, from the creation of the world not plowed", on which "the herds of cranes, drofts, pests, pests, inhabits in the red. This "other edge" cannot have any master (The Countess of Otakoito is a conditional symbol, which, having received its name from hunters, is constantly somewhere "abroad"), and only hunting can exist. Here in the frame of "a picture that could not be given another name, as i'm not."    The movement of the hunting train begins to the sound of a song, the song in the conclusion of the book (in the scene of "dedication") announces that the hunt freezes until next fall. After all, dog hunting lives by the laws of natural time and just like nature, periodic - only from the first yellow leaves to the first powder comes it on the ground. Hunting song is also an indication of the special linguistic existence of the hunting world, which has its own folklore and rich literature.    Hunting language "Small-grassed" - it is not just a series of terminological inclusions in general literary, "book" speech, as on this note "from the author" seems to try to infuse Driyansky himself. This is the stylistic basis of the book, giving it an absolutely extraordinary linguistic flavor, the power of expression, loud and unexpected sound. "First in Russian literature on the richness of language" ,-- called Driyansky's book a deep connoisseur of folk speech and its magnificent master A. M. Remizov . Hunting language is not quite clear to a layman, but it is an ancient, native Russian language, connected with many familiar words by rich associative ties. And it is because of its incomplete comprepregence that the hunting term is experienced by the reader much more strongly, more directly than the worn-out, familiar, general literary word. There is something like a linguistic discovery: behind the unfamiliar, the new learns the old, familiar, and each word becomes the whole world, "abyss of space," by Gogol.    Here are just a few examples. The hunters say, "to "lock" the beast, that is, to lift it from the place, to "wake up" and chase it on the hot trail. The beginning of the race is called "the "wash." And next to immediately stand close, single-rooted expressions: "to wash" (someone), "to wash" (in the light), "to wash" (bride), the proverb "Wash the burqa steep slides!" and so. D. All that rich verbal series, where "smart" that is to close, to remove under the lock, and "washing to grind, to torment, to smear" (Dal), and Novgorod regional "smart", that is, a marquee, a tramp, etc. or a strikingly accurate term "mouse", that is, catching a fox in the autumn or winter.    Or the names of dog breeds. Here's "bors" -- from the word "borzo," that is, fast, fast. "Sedlay, brother, his brezy komoni" ,-- said in the "Word of Igor's regiment." And then there is the whole series, expressing speed, sharpness: "borzote," "borzolet," "borzo-painter" etc.  Hunting language has its own hierarchy, accurately noting the changes taking place in the natural world. Each step of these changes corresponds to its own term. In the "field" of hunting there are "islands", that is, small separate fishing line, mansions (Dal). Wolves are divided into "profits", that is, those who are less than a year old, "per-ers" - more than a year, "mothers" - more than two years and "old people" - more than five. In addition, the wolf, located at the lair, the nest, the wolf-father, is called "nester", the wolf-mother - "nester."    In these terms, it is not difficult to grasp their origin: in the first case ("profit") we meet with the derivative of "profit", in the second ("re-azh" - with a beast experiencing a time of rebirth, "distortion" - from the ancient Slavic god of fertility Yarilo; in the third ("mother") - with quite a tired, formed, entered in the year beast -- from an ancient, ancestral, coming from the "mother."    The narration in "Melkotrava" is conducted in the first person, the face of a former gun hunter, making his first hunting trip as part of a dog hunt and before our eyes, with us comprehending all its "science" (including language). But behind the literary image of the narrator, which so directly correlates with our own ignorance of the hunting world, is the author himself, this world is well aware and understanding. Already what we know about the real basis of Driyansky's book suggests that the narrator and author of "The Note of the Grass"can not defend very far from each other. Knowing the biography of the writer thoroughly, we could surely, going from fact to image, to find more than one, not two confirmations of the accuracy of his artistic method.    But Driyansky's biography is almost unknown to us. So is it impossible to do the opposite and, using the artistic material of "Melkotravited" (and his other works), try if not to establish new biographical data, then at least to supplement the few available and confirm or refute the dubious?

We don't know where or when Driansky was born. Ostrovsky speaks of the writer's "khokhlatsky stubbornness" and "little Russian writer" calls him Dubrovskiy. 1. M., 1974, p. 319. Driyansky himself wrote little-Russian novels ("Odarka," "Panych"), in which he showed himself to be a wonderful connoisseur of Ukrainian life, folklore. Everything speaks for the fact that his homeland can be considered Ukraine.    This is confirmed by the fact that in the "List of works of writers who received education in the gymnasium of higher sciences and lyceum kn. Bezborodko, where the name of the author of "Dead Souls" is numberED BY, is also the Driyansky "Gymnasium of Higher Sciences and Lyceum of Bezborodko in Nezhin. Spb., 1881. p. XLIII." It seems most likely that he studied in Nezhin in the 1830s . . We proceed from his assumptions about the time of Dryansky's birth (his personal file in the archives of the gymnasium was not found. It probably burned down among many others during the fire of 1918). The circle of writers in which Driyansky rotated in Moscow, consisted of people about the same age: 1820-1825 birth. that Driyansky belonged to the same generation. But Driyansky is not on the list of students who have completed the course at this educational institution. So you're under-trained?  Teaching in the non-Jin gymnasium, as in most closed schools of that time, was characterized by a humanitarian bias: students studied here languages, literature, history, art - drawing, etc. Of course, the intellectual reserve is replenished throughout life, but the foundations of it are laid in childhood. So does the narrator of "Small-traumatic" have such intellectual lines, which, being completely optional for an ordinary hunter -- and this is how he is presented in the book,-- could "give out" the humanitarian education of Dryansky himself?  

It's like there is. The narrator speaks at least two -- French and German -- languages, so fluent that he can judge errors in the pronunciation of other characters in the book. Of course, the knowledge of languages for that time is not a criterion of difference, but it is indicative that if most hunters are poorly "known in French", only he alone can turn to the German Caroline Fedorovna in her native language. But it is not necessary for an ordinary hunter to understand the intricacies of painting, to be able to distinguish a copy from the original, a good picture from a mediocre one, and Bopp from Ruisdal. Meanwhile, the narrator on occasion confidently takes up this.    Nezhin gymnasium was created as a privileged school for children of local noble surnames. The conditions of admission were relaxed several times, the composition of pupils gradually became democratized, but the years of interest to us remained mostly homogeneous. It seems that Driyansky signed one of his letters (official letter to the Minister of Education) : "Egor Eduardov's son Driyansky (noble)"    But in genealogical references and pedigrees, both Ukrainian and Polish, both general and provincial, the surname Driyansky was not found. And it itself raises known doubts. As Shchegolev rightly wrote, "his surname, the combination of his name and middle. Or maybe Dryansky's "nobility" was either recent or problematic at all?    However, the unnamed narrator of "Small-tuned" is kept quite "on an equal footing" with other hunters, including the titled (Count Atukayev). And there is no shadow of neglect in his attitude, which the same "his brilliance" sometimes demonstrates in the treatment of the "lower". Apparently, the hero Driyansky belongs to a small-town, but not native nobility, who preserved the dignity of their ancestors, but not their wealth.    What Driyansky did on leaving the Lyceum and before meeting Ostrovsky in 1850, we do not know. Most likely, he spent the 40s in military service in the province: this is evidenced by the story "quartet" with its thorough accuracy and special details in the descriptions of the army life. Some details from the life of the main characters of the "quartet" have, apparently, autobiographical character and give reason to assume the reason for Driyansky's service in the army: the same material dissatisfaction and desire to correct matters officer's salary.

Once in Moscow and met with Ostrovsky, Driyansky became part of his inner circle. He entered Russian literature as a member of this circle. The core of the circle was the "young edition" of "Moskvityanina." This is the way to call a group of young writers (A. N. Ostrovsky, AP. Grigoriev, E. N. Edelson, B.N. Almazov, T. I. Filippov), who came closer together on the basis of the same views on the tasks and goals of Russian literature. Since 1850, M.P. Pogodin, editor of the old and well-deserved Moscow magazine, has invited them to collaborate to update and revitalize their publication.    The rest of the "young edition" was united: N.V. Berg, L.A. May, A. N. Potekhin, M.A. Stakhovich, E. E. Dryansky, I.T. Kokorev, I.I. zheleznov, S.V. Maximov, etc. "Writers; N. A. Ramazanov is a professor of sculpture; P. M. Boclevskiy - artist, famous illustrator of "Dead Souls"; P. M. Sadovsky, S.V. Vasilyev, I.F. Gorbunov, A.I. Dubyuk, etc. - artists and musicians. The mug, to a greater or lesser extent, belonged to various talented self-taught people (musicians, singers, etc.), students, merchants, sitters from the trade ranks "not on the written instructions, but on the basis of ordinary law: be sure to be first of all a Russian person and prove their services of any of the branches of native art, one or the other -  indifferent" (S. V. Maximov) M., 196S, p. 80.

"Egor Driyansky of all Moscow writers was the most frequent visitor and interlocutor of Ostrovsky",-- testifies the same S.V. Maximov (Ostrovsky in the memoirs of contemporaries, p. 80. Driyansky was Ostrovsky's "godfather" in the literary field: his first literary experience - the novella "Odarka Kvochka" - saw the light in No. 17-18 "Moskvityanin" for 1850 with the direct participation of the playwright. The writer was not left by the concerns of his great friend throughout the rest of his creative and life path: Ostrovsky - a frequent listener of the new things driyansky (plays "Comedy in Comedy", stories "Panych" and "quartet" etc.), their editor, he now and then claps, often unsuccessfully, for them in front of other editors. At Ostrovsky's request, Driyansky began to write "Melkotravited", not without his participation and the further history of this book.    Apparently, in the 1850s Driyansky still had a small estate: in one of the letters of that time to Druzhinin mentioned a village, from which the news that "the city processed everything for two years in advance" "Letters to A. V. Druzhinin. M., 1948, p. 118. In any case, then Driyansky had a choice between literature (more precisely, literary earnings) and hunting (i.e. the existence of income from the estate). In a letter to Ostrovsky dated March 3, 1853,  exasperated by the failures of the story "The quartet" Driyansky writes: "Damn with him (i.e. with the quartet.- V.G.) and with all the literature , it's better to flog!" Unreleased letters to A. N. Ostrovsky, p. 108. In September 1856, he was going to start troublesome about some "things more significant" than literature, in which "you can have fun with literature, but only to have fun, no more" "Letters to A.V. Druzhinin, p. 121.    This operation -- according to Driansky's plan, was probably supposed to ensure his well-being -- was clearly failing, and by the early 1960s we were finding him in debt, with the only hope of "feeding him with honest literary work." Now, instead of his own village, he goes to the estate of Ostrovsky Shchelykovo (and performs the duties of the manager there), and his favorite hunting replaces fishing on the rivers Kuekshe and Mere, abundant "pikes and carp." In the last years of his life, Shchelykovo (or, as Driyansky called it, "Yelokovo") becomes for the sick and exhausted writer some symbol of rest "without worry and anxiety": "Dear Alexander Nikolaevich! At last I began to dream that I was with you in Shchelokovo..." "Driyansky E. E. Notes of the grass-grass, p. 34.

We do not even know what it looked like: there are no signed photos or portraits. There are, however, two curious testimonies about the writer's appearance, which suggest that it was not quite ordinary.    The first belongs to M.I. Semevsky and refers to his visits to Ostrovsky's apartment in Silver Lane, at Nikola Vorobin. On November 1, 1855, Semevsky saw here among the guests and the author of "The Note of the Small-Grassed" - "a man with a tanned face and a black mustache" "Ostrovsky in the memories of contemporaries, p. 129."    The second "verbal portrait" is from A.F. Pisemsky's letter to Ostrovsky (around August 7, 1858). Since the September book "Libraries for Reading" in 1858, the novella "The quartet" was to be printed. "The whole first part has already been scored, " when suddenly Driyansky suddenly demanded that the manuscript be handed over to Apollo Grigoriev. The last one in the spring of 1858 in Florence was invited by G. A. Kushelev-Bezborodko to the "Russian Word" as an assistant editor-in-chief and lead critic.    Pisemsky - at this time the co-editor of "Library" - had every reason to dissatisfaction with both the behavior of Grigoriev, who acted here as an undesirable competitor, and Driyansky - too frivolous, inconsistent and almost self-interested author. And he in a letter to Ostrovsky (a common friend of all three) does not skimp on very unflattering characteristics. And among other things, suddenly there is a completely unexpected definition, seemingly to the case itself and has nothing to do with, but clearly "portrait" properties: "I wrote Dryyansky's letter quite lightly, but you crucify it and say that so even the berators, the look of which he wears (cursing my.--V.G.), so the bereters do not do ..." Letters, M.---L., 1936, p. 124.    So, the first evidence is "a man with a tanned face and a black mustache," the second is like a bereitor. These testimonies seem not to contradict one another, rather, on the contrary, in perfect agreement draw a portrait, if not a hunter, then, in any case, a person close to the sun and horses (the bereitor, as it is known, is called a specialist, going around riding horses and teaching them).

The deepest and warmest review about Driyansky was left by his friend S.V. Maximov: "For his sympathetic, soft heart, he was equally appreciated by literary and theatrical circles... in literary circles aroused sympathy with constant failures in affairs. There seemed to be no man more miserable than him. And he did not grieve or be discouraged, and at once forgot about himself, as soon as his help or simple participation was required on the side, and then he worked tirelessly" "Ostrovsky in the memories of his contemporaries, p. 67.    This, it seems, was to be Egor Driyansky - writer, hunter, author of beautiful, human and, perhaps, one of the brightest and most joyful books in Russian literature - "The Note of the Fine Grass." V. Huminski !

The boy Nikolenka and Milka from Leo Tolstoys novel


Link to presentation of Childhood 1852

From Jocelyn Norwood.

"Illustrations from Leo Tolstoy's debut novel "Childhood". Characters are Nikolenka, Milka, and Giran".








childhood 2
Giran from Tolstoys novel, Childhood




Portrait of Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolayevich
(introduction page of the book "The PerchinoHunt)

Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolayevich Romanoff was born in St. Petersburg on November 27, 1856. Member of the Imperial family, he is the son of the Grand Duke Nicolai Nicolayevich (born in 1831), and the nephew of Alexander II (the liberating Tsar who abolished serfdom in 1861). He is also related to the last Tsar of Russia, a great-uncle of Nicholas II,  (1868-1918).

He is familiar to the Borzoi world for his breeding, the famous "Perchino" kennel. But hunting and breeding were for him mere a hobby. A man of very tall stature (1 m 98), intelligent, but known to be quite nervous, even choleric, he was above all a career soldier.

From the age of 20, he took part in the hostilities against the Turks and distinguished himself there. In 1884, at the age of 28, he was appointed commander of the Hussars Regiment of the Guard. Other important positions will follow each other between 1890 and 1905. During the First World War, he was appointed commander of the Russian armies in 1914-1915 and commander of the Caucasian front in 1915-1917. According to the narrators of the time, his popularity with the troops was great and "it was with a true mystical fervor that he was obeyed".

From his early youth, he is a passionate hunter. His first Borzoi is a black and white male named Oudar of the Voyekoff Hunt. Other Barzoïs were added over time to form a first crew of Barzoïs. All are characterized by their aggressiveness and a great grip of neck, that appreciates the Grand Duke who at this time only practices hunting wolves. When he is appointed Commanding Officer of the Hussars de la Garde Regiments, he no longer has enough time to devote himself to his hunt and renounces it. A large part of his dogs are then sold.

In 1887, he acquired the Perchino estate and installed the new founders of the breeding he had already begun to rebuild. While in his first hunt, the Grand Duke had focused all his attention on the aggressiveness of his greyhounds and chose his Borzois only on this criterion, thereby neglecting their aesthetics, he changed his selection mode from the time of Perchino, looking for a dog racy, well built, fast and consistent with the type of the Borzoi, with all the qualities of behavior that characterize the real Borzoi, that is to say, beauty, well constructed, passionate (fiery) and aggressive - essential elements in front of a game such as the wolf.

To achieve his goal, he did chose the best subjects of the best blood (breeding) of the time, and obtains, over the years (under the guidance of his kennel manager Dimitri Waltzolf), Borzois of great qualities both in beauty and hunting ... Perchino, by its splendor and its quality, is then the breeding "lighthouse" of Borzoi in Russia ...

During the Revolution, he retired to his property in Crimea in March 1917, then managed to escape the Bolsheviks by embarking in 1919 with his family and the people of his suite (including Artem Boldareff with family and the private secretary of his wife, Anastasia Nicolayevna ) on an English warship that takes them to Malta and then to Genua. But it is in France that he comes to take his definite refuge. He chosed to settle in the south of France, in Cap d'Antibes, but then moved to the Paris region to live in Choigny Castle (from 1923 to 1928). Sick, he returned to Cap d'Antibes with his brother Grand Duke Peter in October 1928 and died there on January 5, 1929 at the age of 72, due to pneumonia.



.During the First World War (period between 1914 and 1915).
Left picture: with his great-uncle, Tsar Nicholas II.
Right picture: stay in France, here with the Minister of War, Mr. Millerand


Exile and the last days.
Left picture: Villa Thénard in Cap d'Antibes (France) which he had bought and where he died.
Right picture: Funeral vigil of Grand Duke Nicholas.

Author : Danielle Laurent-Faure
Translation from french : Dan Persson

Translation to Russian: Elena Gerasimova
- Historical research on the Grand Duke Nicolas Nicolaievich "the Young", by Dominique-Patrick Faure
- "The Perchino Hunt", Dimitri Waltzolff



The last Tsar, Nicholas II, was a first cousin once removed of Grand Duke Nikolai (known as Nikolasha), who owned and hunted from the Pershino Estate. Nicholas II's grandfather, Tsar Alexander II, was the brother of Grand Duke Nikolai's father. The simplified family tree below shows the relationship which is sometimes mistakenly referred to as one of nephew/(great)/uncle.

Grand Duke Nikolai and his brother Grand Duke Peter married the Montenegro sisters Princess Anastasia and Princess Milica. There were no children from the marriage of Grand Duke Nikolai.

Grand Duke Nikolai relationships


I am publishing this article in The Borzoi Encyclopedia to encourage better understanding of the function of a Borzoi and its development as a breed. It is for all to enjoy reading but no part of my contributions to The Borzoi Encyclopedia may be copied, downloaded, printed or used in any way without my prior express written consent.



Petr Gruzinsky (1837-1892) Hunting scene, 1870






The Russian term that designates this container is: ЦАРСКАЯ ЧАРОЧКА –whose approximate pronunciation is tsárscaia chárachca-, which means the Tsar's cup, or the Imperial cup. The Farnese piece was designed by Fabergés, probably following the model of a sculpture of the Russian artist Eugene Alexandrovich Lanceray (1848-1886), entitled Royal Falconer, work in lost wax bronze, dated 1872, depicting a falconer from the time of Ivan the Terrible with a hunting falcon in hand, in the moment to stop the horse to launch the raptor into flight.


Peter Feodrovich Durassov (1835 – 1894), was a famous borzoi breeder in Russia. He was the son of Senator F. Durassov, in 1884 Equerry (Chief of stables) at the highest court, a wealthy nobleman - he owned 38 000 ha of land in six governments, factories and two houses in the Royal Village, Tsarskoje Selo. 

Russian name: Ца́рское Село́,  "Tsar's Village" was the town containing the former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility, located 24 kilometers,15 miles south from the center of Saint Petersburg.[1] It is now part of the town of Pushkin.

Peter Feodrovich Durassov



In 1873, Peter Fedorovich was re-married to young Alexandra Fyodorovna Yermolov (no connection to the borzoi hunter Yermolov) and the spouses settled at the Durassov estate, which was in the Karsunski county in the village of Old Zinovjevka  in the Simbirsk province. There were about seven thousand acres of land and large stables. Borzoi became Alexandra Durassova's domain but both spouses were honorary members of the society to promote the hunting dogs. At the end of 1880 and early 1890's, the Durassov borzoi participated repeatedly in exhibitions and field trials where they showed good results. In 1889 at the XV exhibition in Moscow, Durassov exhibited 18 Borzoi, of which 2 got a big silver Medal, 9 small silver Medals, 4 Bronze Medals and 3 HC prizes. A few borzois from this group were bought by Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaievich.

In 1891 the Grand Duke paid 250 rubles for the black Gornostai and the white with fawn markings, Uteschai. Both had excellent running qualities in the field. He also bought Serdetchnij.


A few of the Durassov borzoi, bought by the Perchino hunt in the previous year, were in 1892 sent by the Grand Duke to be exhibited at the Crufts show in England, where they were sold: Oudar to the Duchess of Newcastle for 200 pounds, Zlobny to A.Morrisson and Zmeika to Mr.Krehl.

Oudar and Zlobny

In 1895, the Russian exhibition "Horse-breeding and Ethnography of Russia " was held in Paris. In the journal " The Russian Hunter " (1895-14) it was written that the Durassov hunt (of the late Peter Fedorovich ) sent a full borzoi team.

After the exhibition, some dogs from the Durassov Hunt, (Dogonjai, Nalet, Sudarka, Strelok, Krasavtchik) were sold.

During the 1890s many Durassov borzois were used as stud dogs at Perchino.

Krasavtchik (pictured belov) was in 1894 owned by Mr.Jameson in France. It seems that Krasavtchik sired a litter of only one, Wicky, who in her turn had a litter of one, Rogdai. Unfortunately it all seems to end there!   






(Picture of Krasavtchik, courtesy of Andrus Kozlov)









Prior to our visit to the village of Pershino in 1992 I was given books and magazines in Moscow as mementos of our historic trip to Russia. I am publishing these articles in The Borzoi Encyclopedia to encourage better understanding of the function of the Borzoi and its development as a breed. They are for all to enjoy reading but no part of my contributions to The Borzoi Encyclopedia may be copied, downloaded, printed or used in any way without my prior express written consent. 

This article is based on the compilations of Boris Markov, a very talented man and well respected Russian huntsman. It is printed in accordance with the original Russian transcript. The name of the village is Pershino (pronounced Pershina with a rolling "r") and not Perchino and the plural of the word " Borzoi" in this article is "Borzois" not as later adopted in the West. Colours of the dogs are quoted as stated in Russian and translated from the original form. 

"Thirty kilometres to the west of Tula, on the banks of the Upa river, was the Pershino country estate, built as long ago as the reign of Catherine the Great by the famous banker Lazarev. At the end of the last century the Estate was acquired by Grand Duke Nicholai and has since become the leading nursery in the country for breeding genuine Russian hunting dogs.

The Pershino Palace:

The splendid house

Pershino was the place where outstanding Russian hunting Borzoi were raised -- Russian and Anglo-Russian hounds which were exceptionally ferocious with their quarry and which had a splendid exterior. Dog breeders came from Germany, Belgium, France and America to watch the hunt and acquire good dogs.

Through the work of cynologists and simple Russian sportsmen--- hunt leaders, handlers and huntsmen--- the traditions of correct breeding of hunting dogs have been preserved. Nowadays pedigree work has reached such heights that it can be called an art, and a lot of attention has been paid to the beauty of the dogs. According to eye-witnesses, it was sheer delight to watch the Pershino Borzois racing or to listen to the rising and falling of the hounds' voices.

The memoirs of a leading huntsman, V D Solntsov, who took part in hunts at Pershino, have survived. This is how he describes this marvellous sight: 

  "The picture was thrilling in its beauty: first of all a pack of red hounds with the leading huntsmen and handlers, flanked on both sides by mounted Borzoi handlers with dark coloured Borzois in pairs (17 pairs), lined up in front of the onlookers, followed by a pack of skewbald hounds and handlers with 18 pairs of skewbald and light-coloured Borzois. It was like an echo of better times long ago when the ringing sounds of the horns called the hunt to order; people and horses stood as if rooted to the ground, and pairs of amateurishly assembled dogs gathered around each of them in various poses. The whole picture, lit up by the rays of the setting sun against the background of the countryside, exuded a kind of extraordinary strength and charm which only a huntsman would understand. We stood there in silence and our imagination was swept away to the autumn fields and woods where the intrepid pairs of hounds would soon descend like a whirlwind, the whole pack baying in unison."

Hunting with Borzois and hounds was organised by peasant sportsmen, the leading huntsmen and the handlers. Michael Mamkin, Efim Aleksanov, Peter Kuleshov and the huntsman Peter Vasiliev were the real magicians of the hunt. Their experience of leading Borzois and hounds is even today of exceptional importance to the huntsmen.

The Pershino hunt consisted of two packs of hounds with 45 in each pack (one pack red with dogs of Russian blood, the other light bay and skewbald of mixed blood), 130 Russian hounds and 15 English Borzois. Every year at Pershino up to 60 Borzoi and 40 hound puppies were weaned.

According to A P Uspensky's description, the leading huntsman and handlers who worked with the hounds were dressed in red half-kaftans belted with black straps. They carried daggers with white bone handles in their sheaths. The leading huntsman's kaftan was usually sewn with gold lace, his white lambskin hat had a red top and behind his shoulders he carried white nickel horns, chosen for their sound, on a black cross strap. 

The Borzoi handlers were dressed in thin kaftans belted with a black strap with a sheathed dagger and black blue-topped lambskin hats, and carried a horn on a cross-strap slung over the shoulder.The grooms had half-kaftans sewn with gold lace.

The Pershino hunt was led by a black-skewbald Russian hunting Borzoi, a dog called Strike from V P Voieikov's hunt mentioned by E E Dryansky in his "Sketches of a Nobody".

In 1876 a pack of hounds was acquired from the Ryazan huntsman Obolyaninov, and from Baron G E Delvig's two brace of harlequins and a sandy-skewbald dog called Snatch who excelled in his ferocity with the quarry. Delvig's hounds were descended from Zapolsky's marble-white harlequins, famous in Tambov province. These hounds had a keen sense of smell and were excellent wolf hunters. Then the famous Borzois of F V Protasev's Ryazan hunt were bought: Single, Dash,Slant, the bitch Roxane and two grey-skewbald dogs, Baryshnikov's Boa and Lodyzhensky's Strike.

In 1887 red coloured hounds were acquired from P F Durasov which were descended from A I Arapov's dogs, famous in Penza province. The blood of Anglo-Russian dogs from I I Sokolov's hunt was mixed with Delvig's harlequins via the light bay-skewbald dog Batyr, who was descended  from old Glebov dogs from Rakhmaninov's hunt and hounds from France and England. A light bay-skewbald pack which excelled in its keen scent and marvellous voice was bred from these dogs. At the same time , in 1887, nine red-coated dogs, descendants of the Arapov pack, were bought from N A Panchulidzev. Their blood was mixed with that of the famous hounds of P N Belousov, N V Mazharov and A A Lebedev."

A typical hunting scene by the artist Kivshenko:

Typical hunting scene



"Photograph of Prince D B Golitsyn, Head of the Imperial Hunt:

Prince D B Golitsyn


In breeding Borzois all attention is given to the ferocity and friskiness of the dogs. Pairs were chosen for these qualities.

In 1880 a sandy-skewbald dog, Fling, was acquired from the famous Boldarev Russian hunting borzois and in 1891 the pack was supplemented with the sandy-skewbald dog Gladden which was superbly frisky and marvellously built. Mating Gladden and Glory produced some faultlessly frisky Borzois.

In the autumn of 1891 the sandy grey hunting dog Tender, unrivalled in character and friskiness, was bought from B A Vasilchikov.  From Tender and the sandy-grey bitch Blizzard some very good litters were obtained, dogs such as Falcon, Fierce, Tender II, Lady, Madcap,Arrow, Rout, Shoot, Antelope and Orphan. Falcon was especially outstanding and won a gold medal at the Moscow Show, coming second after V N Chebyshev's  famous Reward. Rout was extraordinarily frisky and would catch wolf over rough ground. In Blizzard's pedigree were the famous Borzois of P M Machevarianov and N V Nazarev.

A big influence on the development of pedigree Pershino Borzois was Tufty II, bought from P F Durasov. Tufty and Blizzard produced dogs of the same type: Lout, Barbarian, Witch and Blizzard, primarily dark-coloured dogs.

In 1885  the red-skewbald dog Sorcerer, remarkably thin with a steep-rising back and thin little ears , was acquired from B A Vasilchikov. Mating him with Dove produced the famous Borzois Proud, Ruffian, Storm and Terror. In 1897, using blood pairing, Sorcerer's offspring were paired with Tender's and Tufty's offspring. The result was splendid and gave dogs exclusively of one type. Sorcerer's son Diamond - an outstandingly beautiful dog- won a gold medal at the Moscow Show as well as the prize for the best hunting dog. Diamond's son, the grey- skewbald dog Quick, was sold to America.

Excellent results were also given by mating Pershino Borzois with those of N P Ermolov. The blood of Pershino Borzois went into many pedigrees both in our country and abroad. 

Russian breeders as far back as the last century (sic:19th Century) proved the need for type III- III blood pairing, which is when an outstanding common ancestor is found in the third generation of both the dog's and the bitch's pedigree. Dogs were chosen strictly according to patterns.

The famous expert and author of a book about the Pershino hunt D P Valtsov wrote: "....ancestors of dogs which became part of the Pershino kennels were from the same root, which is how I personally explain the appearance in the Pershino kennels of dogs of the old type."

Pershino Borzois

Unfortunately not in colour but the above photograph demonstrates colours in the breed, red on the left and black on the right-hand side. 

"The famous expert and author of a book about the Pershino hunt , D P Valtsov, wrote:" ...ancestors of dogs which became part of the Pershino hunt were from the same root, which is how I personally explain the appearance in the Pershino kennels of dogs of the old type. "

All the best blood of the time, from the hunts of P M Machevarianov, N P Ermolov, F V Protasev, S S Kareev, A V Nazimov, S V Ozerov and N A Boldarev, entered the Pershino Borzois pedigrees.

D P Valtsov, the former hunt steward, wrote a book "Hunting with the dogs at Pershino" which gave some unique descriptions of the Pershino hunt: "... 2nd September 1899.  The Pershino hunt had spent the night in railway wagons at the Dvoriki station, about three miles from the "Bear's forest" which belonged to Count Bobrinsky;  At 10 o'clock in the morning pair after pair emerged in a long column and went through fields to the island, followed by the main pack. They walked in a column because, before the island where the litter of wolves is, there is no hunting allowed due to fears that the wolf might be frightened by the noise, moved and driven to the edge of the wood. The island described a rectangle  with shorter sides to the east and west and longer to the north and south; the eastern side looked out over a deep transverse ravine, on the spur of which in a westerly direction there was abroad strip of young forest of pines and oaks. The hunt stopped before it reached the unwooded ravine; the pairs lined up in two columns and went to occupy the northern and southern sides , the last pairs having closed up the western side. It was a very quiet grey autumn day; dotted around the fields were stooks (sic: group of sheaves of grain stood on end) of corn which had not yet been gathered, and which provided good cover for the pairs of dogs. I stood on a raised hill and could see almost all the pairs: the island seemed from where I was looking to be lying in a gently sloping depression, and to the north the field ascended into a steep hillock at the top of which there were also some pairs standing behind stooks.

"Hardly had the pack, which had immediately caught up with the adult female, completed a circle around the island when the adult male ran to the hillock towards the handler Michael Eletsky. Michael had the red-skewbald Zairka, the daughter of Ermolov's Seize, Strike, the son of Pershino Barbarian, and Flutter, the son of Dubrasovsky's Tufty with him. Having waited for the quarry to reach him this experienced huntsman let the dogs loose as soon as the adult male glanced to the side towards D D Osipovsky, who was standing nearby; Michael's frisky dogs immediately got at the adult male wolf and went head over heels with him, having missed seizing hold of him; the wolf jumped up, but Osipovsky's dogs with two of Nazimovsky's breed had arrived with some haste and met him; the wolf trampled one of the dogs but Michael's dogs had regained their feet and again covered him, pinning him to the ground, as another of Osipovsky's dogs went for his throat; just as the people hastened up the wolf suddenly threw off all the dogs, broke out of their circle and, having thus separated himself from his pursuers, ran at full pelt back towards the edge of the wood. The dogs willingly gave chase, but to catch an adult male running to the forest's edge is only a job for ferocious and exceptionally frisky dogs.

"It was now that the Pershino pack showed its worth in this respect; Zairka flew like a bird ahead of all the other dogs, made a dash for the wolf and hung on his haunches, thus shortening his stride; Rout and Flutter seized him by the scruff of the neck and again forced him down, and a moment later, Michael was already lying on him and tying him up. Hardly had I looked away from this scene than further to the left the adult female ran to L A Shakhovskoi's pack, noticed that the dogs were dashing towards her, turned towards V K and ran off so quickly that she managed to turn away from four dogs who were trying to cut across her, but not by very much, so that all the dogs had to set off in pursuit.

"It was fine to see how quickly Diamond, Seize and his brother Whirlwind (a gift to Prince Shakhovskoi) began to move towards her, and they had only a short way to go to gather for the attack when the Grand Duke's groom's sandy dogs Falcon, Antelope and Falcon Hen suddenly rose up before the she-wolf. The latter made a decisive move which often succeeds with timid dogs; she turned to meet them head on, hoping that they would miss each other, but Falcon Hen went at her with such keenness and caught her such a blow shoulder to shoulder that she was knocked over, the dogs covered her and she was tied up. The whole pack led the horses to the hillocks, but the handlers overtook the hounds in the field,, stopped them at once and drove them back to the leading huntsman who was already blowing his horn at the edge of the wood: "Here, here, h-e-r-e!"

"I have seen a lot of hunting by the most ferocious dogs with blood from the Nazimov and Novikovsky kennels and the adult wolves have always got away in such circumstances; once he had torn himself free after two attacks near the edge of the wood the adult male never allowed himself to be caught, especially across a heavy field, and here as well my heart missed a beat:" He'll get away!" But the friskiness of the Pershino dogs again came to the rescue: the red bitch from Golovin's pack, Siren, flew out from the group of dogs, made a spurt awesome to behold and caught the wolf, hanging on the nape of its neck, the dogs covered him and raised him up in the air at Golovin's feet as he jumped down from his sleigh. It was a very large adult she-wolf. A third wolf, fully grown like the first one which had been caught, poked his nose out of Koshelev's sleigh but at once went back into the ravine and got through between his pursuers back to his island."

Breed used to flush the quarry prior to Borzois hunting


Picture of an example from the scent-hound pack at Pershino.

"It would take me too long to describe all the hunts for adult wolves; fifty-six were caught in the Pershino hunt, and some hunts were more beautiful than those described, but I have chosen on purpose various years and various dogs so that the hunters reading my story can be sure that daring and ferocity are characteristics of the breed as a whole rather than one or two dogs chosen at random." 

In conclusion, I am reliably informed by the granddaughter of one of the aforementioned owners of a pack of Borzois that this article represents the situation "absolutely as it was". The same person has previously confirmed that historically there was no mass slaughter of Borzois following the granting of freedom to the Russian serfs in 1861. Not all the serfs left the rural landscape but there was a gradual diminution of labour available for hunting over a period of time. The references above certainly support this fact.      


Excerpts from a story “Small memories of a borziatnik” by V.F. Péléchevski, published in the “Hunting Magazine” in January 1876. The name and first name of the General cited in the story are not specified, but it is almost certainly that of the famous Borzoi breeder, General Alexander Vasilievich Jikharev (1790-1881) (Zhikharev) who lived in the village of Krasnoselie, in the Tambov region.

Appendix to the magazine "Nature and hunting" (1882).
Portrait of General Alexander Vasilievich Jikharev.

"In the region where the author of these memoirs lived, there also lived a hunter, a veteran of the old fashioned hunt: General J.A.V.(1). This distinguished gentleman had reached the age of 68 years, which did not prevent him from participating in the hunting season, spending every day in the saddle from 7:00 a.m. until 5:00 or 6:00 p.m. A true huntsman, this honourable old man portrayed the image of the last of the mohicans, like those of the late 60's (2), while other hunters of his generation had retired, realising that they could no longer satisfy their passion. The General was a confirmed bachelor. He had a beautiful property in the Tambov region where he bred high quality saddle horses and trotters. He also had a hunting kennel of up to 100 hunting dogs, including many Borzoi who were his pride and joy. 

Whatever the weather, the General received a daily report of everything that was happening at the kennels. The old man, dressed in a fox fur coat, would go to see if everything was well at the kennel. All the people working in the kennel were his former serfs; everyone loved him and did their utmost to serve him, because he was, above all, a good-hearted man.

Three types of Borzoi were the pride of the General and, without doubt, they were something to be proud of. All three types were worked very carefully to avoid mixing. The Krymki were gigantic, of excellent constitution and had a silky coat. They were particularly fast and enduring but did not take the wolf. The Gustopsovy (dense-haired) were very tall, carefully bred and trained, aggressive and powerful. They were lightning fast, but not at all enduring. The third type, Kourtinki, had points in common with the Kalmuks except for the psovina (3), the broad chest and the rump, as broad and solid, spoke of the endurance of these dogs, indeed, they were irreplaceable on the wolf.

The General was a knowledgeable amateur; it was almost impossible to get a puppy from him, except by special favour he could give an old toothless male to improve the pack. The old man was afraid someone would get ahead of him in the selection. Before the whelping, the female was taken to the apartments of the General, where there was a part of the dwelling used for the purpose of whelping. Each pup of the litter was examined by him in person, then he chose a pair and the others were drowned in a basin under his supervision. The General was never wrong in his choice. He was very generous to his people, but would never have forgiven the deception if he learned that someone dared to pass one of his puppies to someone else without his consent. The servants liked to work for the General and they could not be bribed. The only deception practiced from time to time was secret mating with the males of the General and, even so, it happened very rarely and was very expensive.

Three of four of the best specimens lived permanently in the General's apartments and were free to do as they wished. The General was generous by nature and when he received guests at home, he would allow them to do whatever they liked except if they were unkind towards the dogs. But since the dogs were not very friendly and looked stern, the guests were not looking for trouble.

Nikolaï Egorovitch Svertchkov
Ropcha hunting (1857) - Art Museum of the Ulyanovsk region.

On September 30, the General celebrated his birthday with a big bachelor party for his hunting friends. There was horse racing, prey was prepared in numbers for the “sadki” (4); each guest felt at home, most stayed at the General's house and the following day, everyone went on a hunting expedition, far away to other areas, hunting wherever possible and they returned home with their trophies on November 1st.

The General's mount was an old horse of his breeding, calm and sure. The General never rode too fast, however, his 17 year old groom would ride on at a frantic pace to his heart's content. The hunters, about a dozen people, were mounted on the magnificent grey horses which came from the General's stables and were dispersed in the fields.

The people accompanying the hounds were riding Kirgiz horses. Each hunter had two horses, so that the horses rested every other day. The dogs were also divided into two groups. Only the men had no break, unless the weather was bad. The hunt consisted of about forty horses, a veterinary van, two vans with oats for the dogs, in case it might be impossible to find oats on the spot, a kitchen van, and a light caravan hitched to a troika for the General who, on the rare occasions when he was a little tired, would dismount from his horse.

Whenever the hunt changed village, the General's Estate Manager, would precede him by one day to prepare for the arrive of the hunt. He reserved two houses for everyone, prepared oats for the dogs and 4-5 horses for their food (4). All the dogs, especially those which were hunting, had a portion of meat. He was also preparing for the arrival of men and horses. Sometimes, if the prey was abundant in the vicinity, the hunt would stay in the same village for 3-4 days, sometimes it was only for one night and then they moved to another village. The hunters joined him after the day in the fields. The dogs feet were washed and smeared with bacon, laid in straw in a barn, fed at will, and left to rest the next day. It is obvious that, thanks to such care, the dogs were always strong and fresh. The groom, Sachka, took care of the general's personal svora. He cleaned and brushed them every night. However tired the General was, he would always see the dogs in the evening at mealtimes.

Once, during our hunter discussions, I asked him :
"Tell me, Alexander Vasilievich, are your annual expeditions expensive ?"
"For me, it's essential," he answered. "I put aside 4000 rubles before September 1, and that's enough for the expedition until we return in early winter; for me, my dear, hunting is sarsaparilla (6), the cure for all ills. Thanks to the hunt, I do not need doctors. I do not know any apothecary or have hemorrhoids. I do not visit capitals, nor go abroad, I get paid 13-14 thousand rubles a year and I spend them here, at home, in Russia and not somewhere abroad. I am saddened to know that wealthy Russians spend money abroad but do not have a hunt."

Russian - French translation: Elena Gerasimova
French - English translation : Linda Worthy



(1) In the text, the General is simply mentioned with his initials.
(2) 1860's. In 1861, there was abolition of serfdom in Russia. Gradually many hunts (kennels) disappeared, for lack of means to maintain them.
(3) Psovina: the fur.
(4) Sadki: training dogs on released prey (hare, fox or wolf).

(5) Horses to be slaughtered to feed the dogs (weak, old or sick horses).
(6) Plant that purifies the body.



Catherine Estes has given us this beautiful article about one of the most famous and skilled painters of hunting scenes in the old Russia.

Self portrait
Rudolf Fedorovich Frenz at work
A famous painting by Rudolf Fedorovich Frenz

Born to a modest German shopkeeper and his wife in Berlin, Rudolf Fedorovich Frenz entered this world on October 2, 1831, and graduated from the Berlin Academy of Arts either in 1854 or 1859.  Between 1869/1870, he moved to Russia, where his depiction of grand hunting scenes and animal paintings would begin.  His affiliation with members of the Royal Family and the upper echelon enabled him to accompany them on travels and hunting expeditions, and committing these scenes to paper and canvas.  Frents' prestigious patrons included the Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, emperors Alexander II, Alexander III, and Nicholas I.  His realistic artworks included, but are not limited to:   "Portrait of the Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich on the Hunt" (1867), "Cozy Corner" (1884), "Halt of the Hunters", "Family of Chickens" (1885), and "The Hunters" (1887).  Frenz' paintings can be found in many museums such as the State Museum of Fine Arts of the Republic of Tatarstan, the State Russian Museum, and the Mordovian Republican Museum of Fine Arts named after S.D. Erzi, along with private collections.

In 1884, Frenz became a Russian citizen, and in 1885, he received the title of Honorary Free Communion of the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts followed with Honorary Citizenship awarded in 1904.  In 1912, he became an academician of the Imperial Academy of Arts.  

His artwork was exhibited worldwide to include Paris, Philadelphia, Berlin, Chicago, Odessa, Kharkov, Yekaterinburg, Riga, Kiev, and Kazan.


Rudolf Fedorovich Frenz died on December 24, 1918, at age 87.


Frenz' artistic talent continued by way of his son, Rudolf Rudolfovich Frenz (1888-1956), who became a famous battle painter, a professor of the Academy of Arts, one of the Soviet Battle painting, and the author of the panorama "Battle of Stalingrad."









Olga Zibermans Frenz collection  




Pyotr Fedorovich Filatov lived in the village of Mikhailovka, Saransk district, Penza province (South Russia). His dogs came from the dogs of Machеvrianov, Stolypin, (Andrus Kozlov)



In 1887, Grand Duke Nicolai Nicolayevich acquired the Perchino property west of the city of Tula, about 200 km from Moscow. Perchino was at that time a dilapidated manor house that the Grand Duke is committed to restore and beautify, to make it worthy to become the appointment of hunting that suits his rank.

Opposite : portrait, a little caricature of the Grand Duke Nicolas Nicolaievich. The legend in Russian is:

"His Imperial Highness the Great Prince Nicholas Nicolayevich, on one of his hunting horses at Perchino, during a training session of the young Borzoi at the hunting of wolf, May 1914."

The kennels are built for Sighthounds for hunting, at the same time the property is rehabilitated, and the lands, previously scattered, reclaimed. The Grand Duke transfered his hunt, which he previously had begun to rebuild in the autumn of 1887. Originally consisting of about 60 Borzois, this hunt will later reach 125 to 130 adult Borzois. The Perchino property, in addition to being a luxurious hunting lodge worthy of the social status of its illustrious owner, is a breeding farm. It raises not only dogs, but also horses, cattle, pigs and poultry of different kinds.


View of the Perchino Palace with the circular track for the presentation of all dogs sorted by svora.


The herd of Swiss cows, nursing calfes

Let us return to the goal pursued by the Grand Duke: "In order to form his hunt (which took place towards the end of the 1880s), his Imperial Highness endeavored to search in all the famous kennels of the time for dogs which appeared to him to have the necessary qualities to serve the ’regeneration’ of the old type of Borzoi. It was indeed a regeneration, because for many years the old type of the Borzoi was so completely lost that, to get an exact idea of ​​it, the Grand Duke had to resort to the stories and descriptions made by veterans of hunting with the Borzoi, who, in their youth, had known these dogs and hunted with them ". (The general appearance of the Borzoi - Artem Boldareff, May 1911).

In 1889, the Society for the Improvement of Field Qualities of Hunting Dogs was founded in St. Petersburg under the presidency of the Grand Duke. The company organizes speed and aggression tests for all Sighthounds. The Grand Duke supports this activity and takes part in these events with his Sighthounds. Just as he will participate in hunting dog shows in Moscow and St. Petersburg, or abroad (for example at Crufts - London in 1892, Paris in 1895).

In "Hunting and Fishing" we can read this anecdote : 1912 - organized by the Moscow Hunting Society, 13th international dog show of Moscow, 83 barzoïs including subjects of the breeding of Perchino ... "The barzoïs of the Grand-Duc , placed on special benches, festooned in the colors of his Imperial Highness, with the servants in uniform, formed another "nail" (note: of the show), attracting the crowd of visitors.According to what I learn, Perchino would not have sent his very first subjects whose existence is too precious to expose them to the always existing risks of a dog show ". (Report H. Sodenkamp, ​​December 1912).

In Perchino, the adult Borzoi (not counting kennels dedicated to mothers and puppies) are divided into 9 kennels and dogs are gathered according to their colour. The colours range from dark brindle to white (there were rarely black Borzois at Perchino).

House of the administrator of the hunt and court for the dogs of the "personal" svora.
In the foreground are the Borzoi females, in the background, the Borzoi males.

"The dogs composing the leashes of the hunters are divided into eight groups, each housed in a separate kennel.Two hunters and a kennel boy, attendants to the dogs of the group, live in a housing adjoining the kennel, so they have their pupils constantly under the eyes, a precaution that is not superfluous, given the fighting character of certain individuals.All these kennels are in direct communication with a large lawn surrounded by a wire grid, where the different groups are introduced in turn and can take their exercise under the watchful eye of the staff for two hours in a row, this day.
Dogs are classified into groups according to the color of their hair. So there is a group of gray dogs, another one of brown dogs, a third of white dogs with yellow spots, and so on.
At a certain distance from the eight kennels of which I have spoken, is situated the one where the borzois of the particular leash of His Imperial Highness are installed. It is divided into two parts, one for dogs, the other for bitches. The leash is composed of nearly 30 individuals, chosen personally by the Grand Duke from among the best examples of the hunt; so they present, so to speak, the quintessence.
These dogs come from almost all groups, all colours are more or less represented. However, there are still at least three of them having the same colour, which allows his Highness to keep on the leash, at the time of the hunt, dogs of the same color, the supreme elegance of the Borzoi hunter, but to which, alas! very few modern hunters can aspire.

Beside the borzoïs, the Grand Duke possesses some examples of English greyhounds, which he likes to compete in hare races. He also takes them to the hunt, who likes to compare the speed of his borzois with theirs. For the rest, we do not raise at Perchino, His Highness being satisfied to bring it to the need of England." (Historical overview of the hunting of borzoïs - Artem Boldareff, April 1912)

Every year in autumn during his stay in Perchino, the Grand Duke establishes the list of projections to be made by always using breeders that has produced stock having proven themselves in the hunt.

Dogs are carefully maintained and kept in condition according to the time of year. They also went out hunting alternately. The Grand Duke wants to own a personal hunt consisting of beautiful, fast and aggressive borzoïs.



Naturally, topics that are not satisfying enough or no longer useful are available for sale. Perchino borzois can be obtained from various qualities (everything is a question of price) and a booklet on breeding is provided on request.

"Perchino receives every year a considerable stream of lovers of borzoïs who come to attend the public sales (note = auction) of the month of May-June and the public preliminaries of Russian sighthounds.We are therefore far from sales exclusively for reasons of courtesy or special favor It is only natural that an important breeding like that of Perchino sells what it does not want to keep.This is done in all farms, even when they belong to the heads. crowned as the late Queen Victoria, King Edward VII or HIS Grand Duke Nicholas ". (H. Sodemkamp, ​​January 1904).


Example of proposal ...

Mail to the heading of: "Department of Land Management and Perchino Hunts of His Imperial Highness Grand Duke Nicolas Nicolaevich" addressed to a Mr. Cassius (France).

Mail typed in Russian and written in French.

In response to your letter I have the honor to inform you that if you wish to have pictures of dogs (borzoy) these will cost you 1000/1000 francs. As you have a serious intention to buy a dog, it will be much better for you to arrive personally to choose one to your liking. Such a dog that you want to buy will cost you from 5,000 to 10,000 francs.
Accept Sir the assurance of my devotion.
The manager of the property.


The well-deserved reputation of Perchino's breeding is due to the knowledge and science of the breeding of Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolayevich, recognized and respected by all. He has this indispensable "intuition" that allows him to guess a good breeding in a dog that any other could judge mediocre. He also knows how to surround himself with competent men, like his kennel manager, General Dimitri Waltzoff, a breeder himself and appreciated judge of Borzoïs. Note that, unlike other breeders, the Grand Duke did not seek to create his own family (type) there was no real type "Perchino". He was more of a collector, and thanks to wise choices, he was able to gather the best dogs of the best lines.

Relaxing moment : General Dimitri Waltzoff, in front of his easel.
Beside him the Grand Duke Nicolai Nicolayevich (the third person slightly behind is unknown)
(Dmitri Shehavtsov collection)

"The Borzois de Perchino, descendants of ancestors of different types, naturally presented not a single type, but several, inheriting their appearance sometimes an ancestral lineage, sometimes another, and this was not to displease to As opposed to the majority of Russian hunters who wanted to form a team of Borzois created on the same mold, Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolayevich liked all the good exemplars and kept them in his own hands. breeding, and improving them ". (The topic of the Sighthound - Artem Boldareff, February 1923).

Example of using different "old bloods".
Pedigree of Rasbros Perchino born 18.05.1903, first imported to France by Mrs. Deluce
and then transferred to Germany to Mrs. Sievert (D.W.Z. No. 153)

Perchino's fame is rapidly surpassing Russia's borders. Some breeders or celebrities of the time want to see Perchino. Thus, the brothers Thomas ("O'Valley Farm") make the displacement of the USA in 1903 then 1904 and 1911, the Dr. Arthur Wegener ("Ural"), of Germany, in 1906 then 1913, MG Van Muylem ("of Ziezeghem ") of Belgium in 1907, and M. Alexandre Pellisson of France, twice in 1913.

All return excited about what they have seen, and will make stories that will be published in the Gazettes or in book form (except Mr. Van Muylem).

By the end of the 1800s, "Perchino" borzois or Perchino kennels were imported into many countries.

Some imports will be major by their later influence (for example: Bistri Perchino - 1903 by J.B. Thomas, Asmodey Perchino and Ptitschka Perchino - 1913 by Dr. Wegener).

But we can also note, mentioning only subjects produced in Perchino :
- in Germany : Iran Perchino (import 1913) by Dr. Wegener.
- in Austria : Udaletz Perchino and Tscharodeika Perchino.
- in Belgium : Poulka Perchino; Ugar Perchino (imp.1907) by Mr. Van Muylem.
- in France : Stchegol Perchino (born in 1898) by Mr. Charles Cuvelier ; Rasbros Perchino by Mrs. Deluce ; Lihodey Perchino and Bataiy Perchino, imported in 1913 by Mr. Pellisson ; Karai X Perchino (born in 1910) and Yabeda II Perchino (born in 1913), imported in 1914 by Countess Greffulhe ; Tsharounia Perchino by M. Paul Roy ; Zennaia II Perchino by M. Henry Teissonniere.
- in Romania : Matas Perchino (born in 1912) and Astra Perchino (born in 1913) imported in 1914.
- in Serbia : Hvat Perchino (born in 1910), Vichr Perchino (born in 1911), Razluka Perchino (born in 1913),  imported in 1914.
- in the USA: Nenagladny Perchino, Nayada Perchino and Schalost Perchino (imp.1904), Zyclon Perchino and Yarki Perchino (imp.1911), still by the Thomas brothers.

Some Borzois in Perchino ...
Left picture: black brindle bitch, born in Perchino in 1909
Middle picture: Blestka born in 1909, type of dog appreciated by the Grand Duke
Right picture: Korotai and Armavir I (born in 1900)

But in 1913, this page in the history of the Borzoi is, after 26 years, about to close ... 1914, the beginning of the First World War ... The Grand Duke is appointed Chief Commander of Armed Forces within land and sea of Russia, August 2, 1914 ... Record of his duties August 24, 1915, he took the leadership of the Caucasian army ... Then he takes refuge with his relatives in his property in Crimea in March 1917 (in Tchaer in the vicinity of Yalta) and finally the final departure for exile in March 1919 ... There is no documentation found on this period, but we can assume that the Grand Duke, in this crucial period of Russian history, had little time to continue to indulge in his passion for hunting and barzoïs, and to oversee the management of Perchino. However, it is certain that Perchino continued to exist until 1917.

Let's listen to Andrus Koslov: "Perchino's hunt lasted until the end of 1917. The Perchino archives specify, on March 13, 1917: 175 greyhounds (95 adult Borzois, 80 puppies and 5 Greyhounds) to which the current dogs (harriers, with puppies) add up to a total of 282 dogs, but in 1917 the ability to feed the dogs became difficult, and they could no longer be used on the hunt and were rarely driven.
In the course of the year 1917, all dogs were sold or donated. On October 26, the Perchino hunt was officially declared liquidated by the "On the land" decree. By December 5th the hunt counted only one Borzoi. In the 1920s, the Perchino property hosted the state stables.
However, the palace, with hunting trophies, as well as furniture, dishes, paintings illustrating hunting scenes have been preserved. In 1919, the palace became the "Museum of hunting and hunting life".
In 1926, the museum was closed, the objects it contained were transferred to the Museum of Art and History of the city of Tula. Then the building was gradually abandoned. Subsequently, the authorities ordered to dismount it to recover the bricks, and pieces of irrecoverable walls were thrown into the river. Today, only the foundations of Perchino remain ... "

Perchino, the name of Grand Duke Nicolas Nicolayevich Romanoff, has remained linked to the history of the Borzoi, to its prestigious aura ... And the Perchino Borzois are still present in most distant ancestors of a large part of the Borzois current.


Annex I - composition of the Perchino pack at its peak :
- 100 current dogs
- 130 borzoïs in hunting condition
- 15 greyhounds
- 20 more Borzois in condition to hunt
- 100 puppies a year (60 puppies Borzois and 40 puppies, to keep the flock permanently)
In all, 365 dogs.
To which must be added: 87 horses (saddle and carriage); 78 employees (to operate the whole to varying degrees).

Annex II - Small clarification :
At Perchino, many dogs bore the same name. Thus, with regard to major imports (see above), Zyclon Perchino was actually Zyclon II Perchino, Iran was Iran III, Asmodey was Asmodey II. And Ptischka, Ptitschka I.


Author: Danielle Laurent-Faure
French English translation : Dan Persson
All translations to Russian: 
Elena Gerasimova

Sources :
- reviews "Hunting and Fishing"
- "Perchino's Hunt" (1887-1912) by Dimitri Waltzoff
- Notes and remarks Andrus Koslov
- Brochure on the Tula City Archives (Polozov and Nemov, 2010). Andrus Koslov Communication



The standard from 1888 written by the well known hunter Jermoloff!


The 1888 Modern Borzoi Description by Nikolai Jermolov

Introduction and Translation by © Kristina Terra

Nikolai Petrovich Jermolov
owner of the Jermolov Hunt




The first detailed modern Borzoi standard was written by Nikolai Petrovich Jermolov, an undisputed authority on the breed in the nineteenth-century Russia.  The Jermolov family had bred Borzoi for over 200 years; and Nikolai Jermolov was considered one of the most talented and distinguished Borzoi breeders in the country.  The Modern Borzoi Description was published in 1888 and was approved by the membership of the Imperial Hunting Society. In his article, Mr. Jermolov alludes to the breed’s history and provides a general description of the ideal Borzoi.  This description was meant to set the course for the Russian Borzoi breeders of the late 19th century.  By that time, many different sighthound breeds had been crossbred with the Borzoi to enhance its field abilities.  Those breeds included the Courland Wirehaired Sighthounds (Kloks), Courland Longhaired Sighthounds, Mountain Sighthounds (Gorskayas), Crimean Sighthounds, Greyhounds, Chart Polskis, and Hortayas.  By the late 1880’s the breed was thought to have strayed too far from its original form and lost some of its most valuable qualities, such as the ability for brossok (a burst/dash of speed) as well as some of its fine aesthetic features.  Borzoi fanciers decided to essentially close the studbook and attempt to bring back their beloved and glorious breed by selecting for some of the Borzoi’s most essential features, at the same time keeping the improvements brought about by the crosses. Throughout history, all sighthounds were first and foremost functional hunting dogs and had been selected on their abilities in the field.  Therefore, there was not much need to discuss structural faults in much detail.  So instead, in his description Mr. Jermolov concentrated on the characteristics that distinguish a Borzoi from all other sighthounds. 



There are no longer any purebred Borzoi, as all modern Russian sighthounds had been crossbred with either shorthaired or Mountain sighthounds.  The crossbreeding with Chart Polski had most likely begun much earlier, but even the first Eastern Sighthound crosses started as early as a century ago in the Volga region.  Over the course of the fourteen Imperial Hunting Society exhibitions, not a single purebred Borzoi was seen.  So, since it is clear that we do not have the breed in its original and pure form, now we should only be preserving and improving the breed through correct selection.  We should also treat all Borzoi types equally.  Wide dogs with tight ligaments even if they are of average height (28” for males, 26” for bitches) should be as desirable as tall dogs with flat lean muscles and flatter ribs, as long as there are no narrow backs or narrow hips.  Such faults as a tail that is not perfectly shaped in a correct sickle, which sometimes also happens because the feathering on the tail is too heavy, ears that are set a bit wide or low, or coat that is not profuse but of the correct texture should not be considered major, and it is not wise to linger on such things. 

Before I begin my detailed description of the Modern Borzoi, I think it is necessary to say a few words about the extremes in the opinions of Borzoi hunters.  I have been breeding Borzoi for 35 years, and my experience allows me to put forth my own opinion.  Huge massive dogs with enormous thigh muscles, super wide chests and barrel-shaped short ribs are not typical Borzois.  However, the other extreme, namely, the lack of muscles, a protruding backbone, flat-sidedness, narrow calf-like hips, and a narrow chest that seems to have been sewn up in the front are equally undesirable.  Extremely massive dogs evidence a throw-back to Mountain, Crimean, or short-haired Sighthounds.   As far as the dogs, whose parts are weak and do not seem to fit together, they are mostly the result of random breeding practices with no system or plan in place; not even Darwin’s Survival of the Fittest theory guides those practices; rather, all is guided by old breeders’ or kennel help’s crazy decisions. 

A bloodline is of first and foremost importance in dog breeding.  Only by working with a bloodline, can we breed dogs of a set and sustainable type.  However, at the same time, we should be selecting for the correct features.  Otherwise, we could also make some faults dominant.  Moreover, we should not concentrate on field abilities alone and lose elegance.  By abandoning the bloodline or concentrating on speed or fierceness, we run the risk of loosing years of work.  The unforgettable P. M. Machevarianov and myself both have valued the excellent hare-hunting sighthounds that resulted from crossbreeding to the Mountain Sighthound.  However, this happened in another era, and now it is impossible to find such Mountain Sighthounds.  It is true that all immensely fast dogs had massively wide ribs, yet their bodies were as dense and flexible as solid rubber and their ligaments were tight.  Further, if one only selects for width and mass, the result may be fleshy and coarse dogs that become dominant in type. 

I have never seen a fast dog among the ones with protruding backbones and narrow hips.  At the same time, I’ve known many fleshy Percheron-types that were not agile.  It is important to remember that while you can correct faults in a true bloodline, you will not be able to bring the pure bloodline back once you’ve lost it.  A purebred dog must be elegant and noble in looks.  Those are the sure signs of a true bloodline.  I even consider that sometimes a purebred look in dogs is much better than a simple plebian but balanced dog.  A true expert will be able to tell that a small flat-sided dog possessing running gear that is not outstanding but a correct head, good eyes and silky coat, will be much better for the breed than a coarse but well-put together dog with fleshy head, colorless eyes and coarse frizzy coat. 

I would like to emphasize that now more than ever we must first and foremost focus on the breed type in our dogs.  As far as the dogs’ possible ideal construction and features, they should be approximately as follows:

1)      Size:  normal height at the withers for a bitch is 26”, or 30” for a dog.  One vershok (1.75”) either direction is just as well, as long as the overall balance remains.  So, a 24.5” bitch can be a true beauty and a good producer, just like a 31.5” male can be balanced and handsome.  However, heights less than 24.5” or more than 31.5” should be deemed as flaws rather than merits.

2)      Head (I consider that the head and muzzle should be described together).  The head should be lean with a back-skull that is not wide.  In profile, the dog appears almost Roman-headed, that is the back-skull and muzzle form a rather straight line, with just the slightest dip under the eyes and rise at the brows.  The muzzle should be narrow and long, but not excessively.  Too strong of a back-skull or too snipey of a muzzle are faults and usually occur when the bones of the muzzle and jaws taper in abruptly, rather than gradually.  The lower jaw should not be so much shorter than the upper jaw as to form an overshot mouth.  The nose should be black or dark, almost black.  The nose itself should not be pointy or have a dip in it.  Dish-faced profiles or muzzles that are too square are to be considered faults.

3)      Ears:  small and of thin leather.  We cannot require ears completely behind the occiput.  Though, ears that are too widely set or low are not desirable.  Ears should be close to each other and lay folded back.  It is good for a Borzoi to raise its ears up when in alert.

4)      Eyes are a bit bulging, large, resembling eyes of a snipe.  Dark brown or black in color with dark eye rims.

5)      Neck: should be slightly shorter and thicker on males and proportionally longer in bitches.  The neck is flattened laterally. A well-muscled and strong neck is required of wolf-hunting males, but to be able to catch a hare easily, a longer neck is better.

6)       Chest and forequarters.  The chest should not be narrow.  The shoulders should be well muscled, though the front of the dog should be a bit narrower and definitely not wider than the rear.  There should be a return of upper arm, so that when the dog is standing with its front legs parallel to each other and perpendicular to the ground, the legs are set under the dog.  Otherwise, the dog will seem to be on stilts.  The elbows should be turned slightly out (“into the field”).  The legs are strong, bony and wiry.  The hare-shaped feet should be tight.  The dog should be standing on its toes and nails and not on its heel pad.

7)      Back and topline:  The back should be wide.  The males should have more of an arch to their topline, whereas the bitches should have level toplines with the top of the rise somewhere over the position of the kidneys.  The hips should be wide.  A palm of one’s hand should fit between the hipbones.  It is good when there is no prominent sturgeon-like backbone, but, instead, when there is a groove that runs the entire length of the back.  However, we cannot be strict in requiring this of dogs, just like we cannot ask that all males have an arch to their backs and all females have level backs.  A bitch with a prominent topline, as long as it’s not too steep and as long as her back and hips are wide, can be very well put together.  Also, a dog that has a level topline, as long as he is not long proportionally but rather is compact and taught as a bow, can be a good producer.

8)      Ribs:  neither too flat nor barrel-shaped.  Somewhat convex so that there is space for lungs.  Ribs go down to the elbows.  The tuck-up is well defined; in a correct dog, no stomach should be visible.

9)      Hindquarters and muscles:  The hindquarters should neither be too straight, nor too angled.  The best is when they are just slightly long.  They should be parallel and wide when viewed from the rear, and in no case should the dog be close at the hocks, which always makes a Borzoi look ugly and cow-hocked.  The rear should be a bit wider than the front.  The thigh muscles should be average in size but very hard and strong.  The feet should be long and hare-shaped, and never be cat-footed, as in many short-haired sighthounds.  The hocks should be wide at the joint and taught. 

10)  Tail:  The tail should not be fleshy, and not much wider than a finger.  The tail should be sickle-shaped and of medium length.  There should be profuse feathering on the tail.

11)  General appearance:  (When describing the head, I forgot to say that the occiput, or the rear part of the skull should be pointy).  The Borzoi should have a strong, hard, and well-muscled body.   The coat should be silky and wavy.  It’s better not to have too dense of a coat, but rather the correct coat in texture.  The colors are now very diverse, and one should not be judging the dogs strictly on the color.  The most typical colors are grey and gold.  The pure white specimens with no markings of any sort are seen rarely, but are very beautiful indeed.  Grey or gold markings on white, as well as sables/agoutis, both solid and spotted, are also typical.  Here is what I wrote to Mr. N. P. Kishensky for his book on “Genealogy of Dogs” and what Mr. L. P. Sabaneev published in his “Hunter’s Almanach” in 1885: “Just like the typical colors, all others can only be considered correct in purebred Borzoi if the color is not too uniform or bright all over the body.  A self-gold or straw- colored dog cannot be of the same color all over the body; but rather, the dog’s muzzle, feathering, throat, chest, underline, feet and backs of thighs should be of a much lighter hue gradually fading to white.  The same would apply to a self grey Borzoi.  Basically, purebred Borzoi should not be uniformly colored and not as rich in hue as shorthaired sighthounds.  Solid dark red or ash-grey colors, even with white feet, are not typical for Borzois.”  The noble appearance of a purebred Borzoi is mostly in its extremely lean and correct head, good eyes and elegant coat.  So all the features listed above together with this would produce an exemplary Borzoi, which would please the Purebred Dog Society. 

I do not recognize the Chistopsovaya variety.  A breed should have an original type that is defined and set and I do not know such a variety of Chistopsovaya and do not know any breeders that have such a variety.  Chistopsovayas were the result of cross-breeding Borzoi with shorthaired, Crimean, and Mountain sighthounds.  The results of these crosses for one reason or another retained some of the mixed breed’s features.  Most kennels simply introduced Mountain or Crimean sighthounds’ blood and then bred on with the Borzoi, be it in the correct manner or not.  Hence, the Chistopsovaya type could not have been set, perhaps that happened only at Zhikharev’s kennel, or, possibly somewhere in Lithuania as well.  So, we see the Chistopsovaya only as evidence of a throw-back to the mixed heritage of a dog, but not as a separate breed or variety.  Often people mislabel regular Borzois without a lot of coat as “Chistopsovayas”.  However, it is not just about the coat, as a poorly coated dog sometimes can be closer to the Borzoi’s ideal, than a well-coated dog that has the shape of a Mountain or a Crimean Sighthound.  Even experts are not always able to make the distinction.  In Martynow’s album there is a portrait of Podar owned by V. A. Sheremetiew.  I do not know how accurate Mr. Martynow’s drawing is, but it depicts an enormous dog, which by no means is a Borzoi.  Here is one of the Chistopsovayas!


                       Podar owned by V.A. Sheremetiew, by N.A. Martynow


The owner of the hunt - Vasily Nikolayevich Dyakov- one of the founders of the agricultural case in Russia, the director of the poltava experienced field, was the inspector of agriculture of the main directorate of land and agriculture, held similar positions in Tambov and in Poltava lips. According to relatives, there was a big farm with Auxiliary Services-Stables, dispatch and PR. And since forest lands were also treated to the ministry of agriculture and land. It seemsVasily Dyakov was a busy man, hunting was perhaps for relaxing and fun. In the photos of v.n. diacov himself is absent (maybe himself photographed? ). These photos I received from his great grandson Kolomijčenko Nikolay Vasiljević, and with his permission here are published.




Mr. Rousseau was a dealer, a middleman. He was a man who bought and sold borzoi for a profit, often to Americans. We can perhaps have in mind the following: 

"There were a lot of dogs in Perchino, new ones were born every year. Regularly compiled a list of "defective" dogs and these dogs were sold or donated." .

One can wonder how many of these "in the eye of the Russian breeders, "defective", borzois passed through Mr. Rousseau's hands!




Aleksey Kivshenko

Alexey Kivshenko









Born: 22 March 1851 in Venyov, Russian Empire

Died: 2 October 1895 (aged 44) in Heidelberg, Grand Duchy of Baden, German Empire

Education: Member Academy of Arts (1884), Professor by rank (1893)

Alma mater: Imperial Academy of Arts (1877)

Aleksey Danilovich Kivshenko (Russian: Алексей Данилович Кившенко; 22 March 1851, Venyov - 2 October 1895, Heidelberg) was a Russian painter, primarily of historical scenes. Among the best-known were those depicting the Russo-Turkish Wars. He also created hunting and genre scenes and was associated with the Peredvizhniki.

He was born on a small stud farm. His father was interested in art and music, so he encouraged his son's early attempts at drawing. His first studies began when he was nine; at the Imperial Society for the Encouragement of the Arts with Ivan Kramskoi.[1]

From 1867 to 1877, he was a student at the Imperial Academy of Arts, under the direction of Kārlis Hūns.[2] He also audited classes at the State Institute of Technology and the Medico-Surgical Academy, but these were not to his liking. While there, he helped support himself by working as a scribe for the Admiralty Board.[3]

In 1880, after receiving a foreign fellowship, he began to travel extensively, visiting Paris, Düsseldorf and Munich, where he worked with Gabriel von Max and Wilhelm von Diez.[2] When he returned in 1884, the paintings he had produced earned him the title of "Academician". Later that year, he was commissioned by Tsar Alexander III to create scenes from the recent Russo-Turkish War, so he went to Transcaucasia to make sketches. He also taught drawing at the Saint Petersburg Art and Industry Academy until 1889.[1]

In 1891, he accompanied Nikodim Kondakov on an archaeological expedition to Palestine and Syria, returning with numerous sketches of everyday life in the region, as well as the ancient buildings.[1] Many of these were used as book decorations. In 1893, he became a full member of the Academy and taught a class in battle painting.[2] He died of undisclosed causes during a visit to Germany.

Olga Zilberman's collection

Roubaud (Rubo), Franz (Russian,1856-1928)



Color of borzois imported by Mr. Paul Hacke from Russia in 1891 from the middleman Mr. A. Rousseau. Most of the borzois were purchased from the kennel of Grand Duke George Alexandrovich.

Source "Forest and Stream" 1891-08-20

Import Hacke



An Outline of the History of the Borzoi

This article was written in 1891 by Baron G.D. Rozen and was published in the journal Russkii Okhotnik. This material was graciously provided by Dr. Jim Sillers, who had the work translated and the resulting paper presented at the 1997 BCOA National Specialty and at the International Borzoi Conference in October 1998. Thanks Dr. Jim!

In intending to write a historical essay on the borzoi, I must not fail to touch on the history of the dog in general.

In this outline the reader will not find a comprehensive and detailed description of various breeds of dogs. But wherever possible I shall strive to join all existing dogs into several separate groups that I believe were original and from which all others descended; I shall be guided by one hunter’s view of the subject, since, in my reasoning, the dog originally could have existed in a domestic state only in the hunting sense, and only later could have begun to benefit man in another sense.

First I shall treat the dog as a fossilized animal and say all that can be said about the prehistoric dog. I shall divide dogs into groups conforming to the proclivities and character of the animal.

The second section of the outline will occupy the period of historical existence of the borzoi (wolfhound1) in other European countries and among us [in Russia].

At the end I shall examine the present status of the borzoi among us and abroad. I must say, unfortunately, that the Russian section in regard to dogs is extremely meager, and that I have had to be guided largely by foreign sources and largely to endeavor to come up with ideas from my own conjectures. I allow the readers themselves to judge to what extent these conjectures are accurate, and I would be very grateful to them for any statements and corrections from them.

Perhaps some of them will come up with sources as yet unknown to me, in the form of old letters and memoirs; communication of these materials in print would of course contribute nothing other than good to the history of Russian dog breeding, and might shed new light on the subject of such interest to us, a subject in which, alas, almost nothing has been done to date.

The Prehistoric Period

By this heading I mean that time which we can judge only by the fossilized remains of dog bones.

Everything now known about this time pertains exclusively to Europe, since we do not yet have reports from other countries.

This entire period may be subdivided into two parts: the time before the arrival of the Aryan tribes in Europe, and the time since then.

Before the arrival of the Aryans, all that can be adduced about the existence of the dog reduces to the following.

Fossilized remains have been found everywhere, but in a very limited quantity with respect to individuals. Just four breeds of dog are known to this point:

  1. Canis ferus (the wild dog), with its variations called Canis familiaris;

  2. Two close varieties related to the wolf; Cano europaeus and Cano Edwardsianus (a breed close to them still exists in India and the Himalayas);
  3. The peat dog of the Swiss lakes;
  4. One of the two breeds found during digging of the new Ladoga Canal and called Canis polustris Ladoguensis.

All these dogs existed in Europe before the Arrival of the Aryans, as earlt as during the Stone Age. With the appearance of the Aryan peoples who brought bronzeware with them, one other breed probably bred by the Aryans appears among fossilized dog bones. It differs from local dogs in its larger height and borzoi-like exterior.

It cannot be assumed that Canis ferus was indeed a domestic dog as we see it now, and this is because most of the teeth found for this breed were pierced and probably served as decorations for primitive peoples. We know that all decorations, in this sense, were made solely from the teeth of wild animals that were the subject of the hunt. In later and later epochs, where there can be no doubt as to the domestication of the dog, the teeth of these wild animals do not turn up in pierced form, whereas the teeth of the bear, the wild boar, and others continued to serve as decorations.

All that I have said up to this point pertains to Canis ferusCano europaeus, and Cano Edwardsianus, but recently, in excavations during the digging of the new Ladoga Canal, Mr. Inostrantsev found the remains of dog bones of this locality during the Stone Age.

Everything pertaining to this find can be found in A. A. Inostratsev’s work Doistoricheskii Chelovek Kamennago Veka, Poborezh’ya Ladozhskago Ozera [Prehistoric Stone Age Man on the Shores of Lake Ladoga], revised by D. N. Anuchin. The information drawn from this work is as follows: during the digging of the new Ladoga Canal, bones of a prehistoric dog were found that belonged, according to the surmises of Mr. Anuchin, to 15 individuals. It may be assumed that these bones occupy in time a position between the so-called “Danish kitchen remains” and the “Swiss pile dwelling.” It turned out that a comparison of the Ladoga dog with the dog bones of the kitchen remains is all but impossible because of the extremely spoiled state of the latter.

The remains of the pile dwellings are superior material for comparison. From comparisons, it turned out in general that the dogs of the pile dwellings and Lake Ladoga have much in common, both in the structure of the skull and in height; they are apparently the same breed.

Rüthimeyer [Ryutimeier] finds that a comparison of the skeleton of the fossil dog of Western Europe with existing breeds forces us to surmise that it was most similar to hounds and sporting dogs.2 In addition to the hound and sporting dog, the fossil dog is close in skull structure to the dog of the Papua Archipelago and New Britain.

In addition to the breed described above, in the prehistoric period there was another type of dog identical to the others, but larger, called the “peat dog,” whose appearance incidentally dates to the very late Stone Age.

According to remarks by Mr. Anuchin, one of the dogs of Lake Ladoga, although similar to the dogs for the pile dwellings and the peat dog, is another kind of fossil dog in terms of certain features but had yet to appear in Western Europe. Mr. Anuchin says: “From all the data presented, one may conclude that one breed of dog on the shores of Ladoga during the Stone Age was extremely similar, and in all likelihood was closely related, to the Neolithic breed in Western Europe, and differed from it mainly in having somewhat greater height, a stronger constitution, a less bent profile, a large flare of the skull toward the rear, and a somewhat less pointy muzzle in front.”

One may conclude from the available data that in the Stone Age there existed throughout the entire are of Europe basically one breed of dog, with extremely minor variations. The features of this breed were: small height, fairly weak teeth, and, in all likelihood, close similarity to the modern sporting dog and hound.

With the advent of the Bronze Age and the arrival of the Aryans in Europe, an entirely different breed of dog appears. Mr. Anuchin talks about this more in his work: “In the Bronze Age we find another breed of dog, taller that all previous ones, and closely similar in skull structure to the large borzois of today. In general one may say that all hypotheses of scholars are conjectural because they do not have in hand the skulls of today’s purebred borzois. In all probability, the large borzoi-like dog of the Bronze Age appeared together with the Aryans who appeared in Europe at about this time and who brought it from Central Asia.”

But all breeds of Stone Age dogs probably belonged to the indigenous, primitive inhabitants of Europe, who had no need for the large borzoi, since they did not have herds and all the land then occupied was wooded.

In addition to the large dog of the Bronze Age, there is a sort of intermediate form from whose skull we may hypothesize that it descended from crossbreeding of the large breed of borzoi-like dog with a small breed that existed before it in Europe, which was similar to modern-day hounds and sporting dogs.

In the bones found at Lake Ladoga, although the same intermediate breed also is present, from the changes in the skull one can note that it retained a great similarity to the large borzoilike breed of the Bronze Age. This forces us to conjecture the greater predominance of the borzoilike dog over the local breed when they were crossbred with each other.

Later Mr. Anuchin says: “At the same time, one may conclude from all the foregoing data that the large ancient Ladoga breed of dog had a well-developed scent, was distinguished by strong gripping muscles, and was superbly adapted to fast running. In other words, this breed combined in itself all the main traits necessary for successful hunting of big game.

“It would be extremely desirable to trace the spread of these ancient Ladoga breeds in local districts of Russia, but the available materials unfortunately remain too meager to arrive at any positive conclusion in this regard.

“It is worth noting that in the Neolithic sediments of Central Russia, such as around the village of Volosov near Murom, all the bones of a domestic dog were found recently, despite the fact that many stone implements and bones of fish, fowl, elk, marten, badger, bear, wild boar, beaver, and other wild animals are found there.

“The boneyards of Perm’ also have failed to yield dog bones, despite the fact that masses of bones of elk, wolverine, bear, northern deer, and small predators were found there, as well as livestock, including cattle, horses, goats, and pigs.”

The absence of dog bones at the aforementioned sites also may be explained by the fact that these were sites where sacrifices were brought and the dog was not a sacrificial animal.

All that has been said thus far pertains to the very earliest times of appearance of the dog in Europe; the further we trace the finds of dog bones dating to the most recent epochs, the more universal the occurrence of the dogs becomes and the more diverse their breeds.

Mr. Bourguinia [Burginia] in France has found numerous remains of dogs in caves in the Alpes-Maritimes Department; of these bones, he recognized the following breeds:

  1. Dachshunds;

  2. Hounds;
  3. Sporting dogs;
  4. Shepherds;
  5. Two varieties of the borzoi.

In addition to these breeds, Bourguinia believes that the remains of other varieties of Great Danes also were present among the bones.

So this is all that we know thus far about the fossil dog, and all these data reduce to the following: for now we know of two breeds of primitive fossil dog (Bourguinia’s find may not be dated to this time): 1) the Stone Age dog, which is similar to the sporting dog or hound, and 2) the dog of the Bronze Age Aryans, large and quite similar to the borzoi.

Since the subject of my outline is the borzoi and since the primitive dog of the Stone Age generally has nothing in common with the borzoi, I shall endeavor exclusively to elaborate the question of the large borzoilike dog of the Bronze Age Aryans, believing it to be a relative of our borzoi.

In working on this question, I of course have no data other than the detailed description of this dog’s skull by Mr. Anuchin, and I therefore will have to present only my own conjectures and hypotheses.

We do not know, of course, whence originated the dog that the Aryans brought to Europe, and all the hypotheses of scholars regarding the origin of the dog in general also may apply here.

Recently they have begun to tend toward the view that the domestic dog descended from one or many breeds of wild dogs, but from which? And where are the remains of these dogs? Here indeed is a question! The view of some scholars on the origin of the dog still has not been fully estalished; many continue to adhere to an origin from the wolf, jackal, hyena, and fox; in my view, this notion does not have any basis, and I shall allow myself to repeat here what I have already written on this subject in a brief note published in Issue No. 14 of the magazine Russkii Okhotnik for 1890, under the title “A Few Words on the Origin of the Dog.”

I believe that everything that various scholars have had to say on this subject suffers from one-sidedness. Scholars view the dog through the eyes of scholars, and not hunter; it seems to me that herein lies their main error in the desire to learn whence the dog came.

To view this subject from the hunter’s standpoint would be more rational, especially since the first dogs could only have been used for hunting; and why this is so I shall say. In the beginning, the entire surface of the earth was in all likelihood covered with dense forests; there are genealogical data to this effect.

Primitive man in those days could not, of course, engage in any activity other than hunting, and the dog was unquestionably his best helper in this undertaking.

The question is: did man train some breed of animal to hunt, or did this breed already exist and man only train it and make use of tis habits and propensities, turning them to his advantage? These questions can be answered by an analysis of the character and propensities of the dog, on the one hand, and of those animals such as the wolf, fox, jackal, and hyena from which, according to some scholars, the dog descended in all its varieties, on the other hand – the scholars’ mistake lies precisely in their omitting, in this analysis, the character and propensities of both groups.

Any dog, whatever the breed and whatever size it may be, differs from other animals in its ferocity; it is the only animal that kills other animals solely for pleasure. This trait is more characterisitic than anything else. All other animals kill and attack other animals in just two cases: when they are driven to do so by hunger or self-defense. Furthermore, all other animals of the “dog” genus are distinguished by an extremely base character, and for the most part they are cowardly. The bravest of these, such as the wolf, never attackes alone and openly animals stronger than themselves. I am not speaking of the jackal, fox, and hyena – their cowardive and baseness have found their way into a local saying.

The dog, by contrast, often attacks animals much stronger than itself, and what is the main thing, it possesses, if one may use this expression, overt hunting proclivities. It never tries to resort to cleverness and always acts openly and honestly. Someone may say to us in reply that man developed all this in the dog, but I believe that man could hardly create a brave and honest creature from a craven and base animal! If all these traits had been instilled in the dog by man, then the very nature of the animal would have manifested itself somewhere without fail – for instance, in those breeds which have long serves only as a decoration or a whim and in which every effort is made to wipe out the hunting instincts, such as all breeds of lapdogs.

In fact, we often see how a small lapdog whose ancestors and which itself were raised in a room on small sofas, with pleasure smothers some canary or mouse that it has succeeded in catching; I believe that this is a direct sign of its basic character, and that it could not have been instilled in it from without.

The wolf, when sated, will not for any reason chase after another animal, no matter how tasty a morsel it might appear to be. To a dog, on the other hand, whether sated or hungry, it is all the same. Perhaps it cannot catch the pursued animal because its belly is too full, but it will without fail chase after it and, if it can catch it, will stifle it with the same ferocity, regardless whether it is full or hungry. One would hardly suppose that a dog constantly stuffed with coffee, chocolate, and biscuits would smother a canary or a mouse out of hunger; would it not be more likely to postulate in all these cases the hunting instinct rather than hunger?

An important confirmation of my ideas can be found in analysis of the habits of the shepherd dog. According to data available to us, the shepherd has existed almost as long as the original dog itself, but in it we see the same ferocious proclivities as in the hunting dog, although man has changed the dog’s character, training it to chase after only certain animals while at the same time guarding others.

In sporting dogs we see the same thing; man has already trained them to point and broken them of chasing and attacking wild game. All these results of training by man are noticeable only in those dogs under man’s constant watch; but remove a shepherd or sporting dog from man’s influence and leave it to its propensities, and it will undoubtedly revert to its natural, primitive habits. We can trace this easily in those sporting dogs and shepherds who are raised as yard dogs, without any supervision, and who are not given any training; all these dogs begin to chase animals, not only in subsequent generations but even in the first; the shepherd will choke lambs, and the sporting dog will lose its pointing ability and begin to chase wild game. From all my observations of dogs, I have reached the conviction that training has an effect only to a certain degree, and that the fundamental feature of the character of any dog – its ferocity – cannot be extirpated by any training or upbringing whatever.

From the foregoing one may assume that primitive man, who trained the first dogs, in no way bred them from the wolf, fox, jackal, or hyena, but encountered a preformed dog that already possessed hunting abilities to a superior degree. On encountering the dog, man could only turn it to his advantage and develop these abilities, but could not in any sense toy with the idea of creating for himself a hunting assistant in the form of a dog from a wolf or other animal, and of imparting to this animal the traits necessary for hunting. This last situation also could not have been because to create something one must have an idea of the object; how could man have created a dog never having seen one and having no concept of what a dog would be and of for what it would be suited?

As an argument for the descent of the dog from another animal, some scholars adduce the notion that a dog that has gone wild loses its ability to bark, but in reply to this one could say that there are whole breeds of nonbarking dogs, such as the tundra dog of northern Siberia, which never barks; the large Siberian hunting dog, which barks almost not at all; and finally our Russian long-haired borzoi, which also barks almost not at all. A dog does not have to run wild in order not to bark.

What even more strongly refutes the hypothesis that the dog descended from any other animal is the current existence of the very same animals from which it was supposed to have derived.

The wolf, fox, jackal, and hyena often live close to dogs, but they do not freely interbreed with each other and even if mongrels of these animals and dogs occur, under the influence of man and in a hunting sense they are never suitable; there is a loss of bravery, and only a tendency to shred to pieces livestock and poultry is retained.

Finally, if the dog could have derived from one of the animals mentioned in prehistory, why does the same thing not occur now too?

In Algeria, where a great many stray dogs live in full association with packs of hyenas and jackals, mongrels are not seen, although fights between them occur not infrequently.

At the present time, there are still places on earth where dogs live in a near-wild state, and it would be very interesting to obtain fossil remains from these places; unfortunately, excavations conducted thoroughly and skillfully have produced results only in Europe.

What excavations in other countries will give us in this regard we still don’t know; it should be assumed that the question of the origin of dogs will become clearer then than it is now; we need only find some fossilized form of an indisputable dog.

In light of all the foregoing, I conclude the modern dog unquestionably descended from the dog, and not from any other animal.

The Prehistoric Period II

Mr. Anuchin, in describing the dogs of the Bronze Age that Aryans brought to Europe, says: “At the same time, from all the data presented one may conclude that the large ancient Ladoga breed of dog had a well-developed scent, was distinguished by strong gripping muscles, and was superbly adapted to fast running.” Mr. Anuchin does not draw any other conclusions, probably because there is nothing else to add. From the foregoing words of our scholar, we hunters can say, almost with certainty, that the breed in question was closely similar to our borzoi.

Now the question arises: which of the two breeds of fossilized dogs was older? We also find the answer to this question in the words of Mr. Anuchin, who adds that in addition to the bones of the large dog of Lake Ladoga, bones of a sort of intermediate breed were found which is similar to the native European dog of the Stone Age and similar to the sporting dog or hound, but with the difference that the type of large dog of the Aryans with a borzoi-like exterior predominates in the intermediate form.

We see from the results of modern dog breeding that a breed, once firmly and long established, always predominates in the descendants of crosses with a native dog, and it is clear from this that the breed of the borzoilike dog of the Aryans, as predominating in the cross with the native dog, unquestionably was older and was more firmly established than the breed of Stone Age dogs in Europe.

And for this reason we may conclude that the borzoi is the oldest of all known breeds of dogs on earth.

Once we reach this conclusion, we also may conclude that all existing breeds of dogs, together with various modifications, descended from the borzoi. We now shall see how accurate this statement is.

The distinguishing features of any borzoi break down into two groups. One group pertains to the physical build of the animal, while the other is entirely moral. From the first glance at any dog we may say that this animal is by nature adapted for running; in the borzoi this adaptation is pronounced much more sharply than in other dogs, by the severely dropped ribs and the so-called “tucked loins.” Despite this difference, however, we still can note that tucked loins exist more or less in any dog. Here, of course, I am not taking lapdogs into account. But in fact we see that any dog is indeed very capable of powerful, prolonged running; even the heaviest of them, such as the bulldog, run superbly under certain training conditions.

As for the moral aspect, it is observed unconditionally in any dog, and comprises the proclivity to chase and catch anything that runs; once again, this tendency is developed more strongly in the borzoi than in other dogs.

The features just described, which are more or less inherent in all dogs in general, merely confirm my opinion of the origin of all dogs from one breed of borzois.

How this was accomplished is hard to say, even if it is entirely impossible, but it seems to me that one can establish to some extent a certain hierarchy in the origin of one breed from another.

Before undertaking to do so, let me try to surmise what the dog of borzoilike form that belonged to the Aryans was.

Since at that time a large portion of the earth was covered with forest, one cannot suppose that it had the elegant and light forms that we see in the modern borzoi. The words of Mr. Anuchin to the effect that it had good scent and strongly developed gripping muscles force us to hypothesize a coarse dog capable of tracking an animal through the then dense forests, and of engagin in battle with it; since it had fairly good speed, this was fairly easy for it to do. It should be added that in those days man probably did not hunt fast-running animals such as the hare, but pursued larger game such as elk, deer, bear, and so forth. Consequently, the dog had to have not the speed of the modern borzoi but simply a fast gait, indefatigability, and strength. In general, the type of this dog as the forebear of all existing dogs should not have had any pronounced features of constitution, but more likely was to some extent similar to a large, borzoilike mongrel.

It is a great pity that there are no data as to what kind of ears this breed had: prick or hanging ears? For my part, I am inclined toward the view that the ears were semihanging – and here is why: I spoke previously about the predominance in crossbreeds of the forms of the breed that is older; in the present case one can apply the same principle. We know of a long-existing breed of borzois with hanging ears: these include all the eastern dogs; when these borzois are crossed with borzois and in general with other dogs with prick ears, the hanging shape of the ear is conveyed to the offspring more strongly than any other features; from this one can conclude that the hanging ear of the eastern borzoi is an unquestionable feature of antiquity and of established blood. This hanging ear moreover persists in crossbreeds, which in borzoi breeds with which the blood of the eastern borzoi has been mixed even once, dogs are produced with hanging ears after time intervals of 40 or 50 years, despite the fact that all subsequent studs had prick ears; this persistency of the feature only confirms my opinion of the hanging ears of the primitive dog. How do I imagine the primitive dog? It was probably a very large, mongrellike borzoi, with a coarse, muscular head, a short muzzle, semi-hanging ears, highly developed thick ribs, and not especially large loins.

Having concluded with this, we shall now try to divide existing dog breeds into groups.

While recognizing the dog only as a hunting animal, I believe it possible to subdivide all dogs into two large groups, namely: 1) gazehounds (sighthounds), and 2) scenthounds.

All dogs with poorly developed scent that are capable of taking an animal solely by speed of pursuit or physical strength in battle will belong to the first group.

The second group will include those dogs whose scent is well developed and which can take an animal either by wearing it out or by cunning.

In establishing these two groups, I do not take into account lapdogs and mongrels without any definite breeding.

Lapdogs are not taken into consideration because they do not constitute any separate breed but are simply caricatures or miniatures of all large breeds.

Mongrels cannot be taken into consideration because they constitute a mixture of all possible breeds.

I include among gazehounds of the first group:

  1. Borzois in all their varieties;

  2. Mastiffs;
  3. All varieties of Great Danes;
  4. Bulldogs;
  5. Shepherds;
  6. All varieties of huskies and working dogs of the northern countries;
  7. Danes and Dalmatians;
  8. Terriers of all kinds.

The second group will include:

  1. Scenthounds of all varieties;
  2. Sporting dogs of all kinds;
  3. Saint Bernards;
  4. Newfoundlands;
  5. Mountain dogs.

If one examines closely the division that I propose, all existing breeds will find a place in one of these two groups.

There are also a number of breeds that descended from a crossbreeding of members of one group with members of the other; but this nonetheless cannot destroy the basic types described above.

At first blush it may seem strange that I have placed in the same category two such opposed dogs as the borzoi and the mastiff or bulldog, but I believe that there can be no doubt as to the kinship of these dogs. Of course, one cannot suppose that the mastiff descended from the borzoi in a short time interval and is not the product of the very recent existence of man as the creator of the breed.

During the hunt for large game, the first people probably were struck by the ability of the borzoi, which by chance was born with a shorter muzzle, to hold an animal more strongly and for a longer period of time. As a result, in skirmishes with larger animals that could not run fast, they began to try to breed dogs with a shorter and more powerful muzzle. By selecting more and more massive dogs with stronger jaws as studs and bitces, they arrived at the mastiff, and from it they produced the bulldog.

Someone might object to me that primitive man was hardly so developed that he could conduct breeding; I do not postulate this, but think that breeding was done without any preconceived notion of breeding some variety or breed of dog; it all took place of its own accord, stemming solely from the hunter’s experience and pressing need, and no theory was at work there.

It should be noted here that in general primitive man, a closely similar type to which we see in existing savages, was a fairly refined expert in the training and breeding of varieties of various animals; nearly all current livestock arrived in this state not in recent times but in the prehistoric period of man’s existence.

As I base my hypotheses on this, the selection of studs and bitches in the breeding of dogs with various features that are fairly well suited for hunting such diverse animals as the deer or bear does not seem strange; a lighter dog was required for the former and a more massive and powerful one for the latter.

To what extent the ancients were more capable than we are in the domestication of wild animals, we see in the existence of domesticated lions, which are used in war and even in hunting, as many writers attest.

How the hound was formed from the borzoi is, in my view of the subject, perfectly clear. Among primitive dogs, dogs both large and small probably were expressed, and among these latter, dogs less fast and faster occurred. Out of these latter, both smaller and not so fast, the hound formed with time. The hound, having no possibility of catching an animal, began to bay out of meanness, and little by little conferred on itself this habit during the hunt. Originally, it probably bayed only in the case where the animal was stopping or moving in view.

With time, its scent developed more and more and the ability to hunt by voice along a trail took root.

One should not think that the primitive hunter overlooked this phenomenon without noticing it and turning it to his advantage in tracking down a wounded, hiding animal. Hence the ability to smell and speak in a dog, albeit not a hound, but a dog that was already turning in a sense into a hound, grew stronger in each generation and finally yielded the Russian hound of old, then the Kostroma hound, and finally all other hounds, from the ancient, now fossilized badger hound (dachshund) and the modern French hounds with their enormous ears.

If one takes two extremes from the second group of dogs, they will seem less strange, as the origin of the other breeds from the hound is obvious, and there would be no point in going on about this.

In conclusion, I would like to say a few words about the extreme ability of the whole race of dogs to be altered with extraordinary facility. One could hardly find another animal that adapts so easily to climate, way of life, and food as the dog, from the dog of the northern countries, covered with a thick and warm coat, to the Chinese hairless.

Since, for instance, adaptation to climate occurs quickly, I have had occasion to observe it for myself on long-haired borzois that I took to the Caucasus, to the banks of the Kuban’ River; the hair on the dogs became much thinner in the very first year, and in the very first generation of progeny it lost its thickness even more. If this could happen in the short time interval of 2 years, one can easily imagine what a difference centuries would make in this regard.

The question that needs to be clarified is the more or less prick-type ear of different dogs, despite the fact that according to all data one may hypothesize the primitive dog with semihanging ears, as I endeavored to prove above.

We unquestionably see the prick ear only in one kind of dog, namely dogs of the Far North. In general, the prick ear demonstrates alertness and attention; any dog whose attention is roused pricks up its ears, from which we may conclude that the more often and constantly a dog must listen attentively, the more its ears must prick up; the extreme limit will permanently and completely be a prick ear.

In addition to hearing, we may note in the dog other abilities that serve to recognize terrain, such as scent and recognition of places already known to the dog.

In the Far North, where the terrain is all but impassable and utterly uniform, the severe cold hinders recognition by scent, one ability remains for a dog to orient itself – and that is hearing. This is why it seems to me that an entirely prick ear appeared in this breed; to what extent my hypothesis is correct I don’t know, but it seems to me that it is the only possible one in this case, and this phenomenon can hardly be explained in any other way.

In describing the appearance of the primitive dog and postulating for it a semihanging ear, I do not think that it was so characteristic as the ear of the hound, the sporting dog, and the eastern borzoi. The ear, like any other organ, is capable of change, and in the primitive breed it probably was more a hanging ear than a prick ear, and differed greatly from the ear of the modern eastern borzoi, which, as I stated above, so strongly passes on this feature to its offspring, in crossbreeds with other breeds of dogs that have a semiprick ear.

A fact that somewhat clouds the picture is the appearance of prick ears in some breeds of wild dogs in warm countries, such as the Dingo of New Zealand, but in this case the Dingo may not, I believe, be considered a domestic animal but only an animal that belongs to the “dog” genus on a par with the wild dog of the Cape of Good Hope and the dogs of the American plains.

The wolf, jackal, hyena, and fox all belong to the “dog” genus and all have prick ears.

Some modern breeds have the same prick ear, but in this case one must strictly apprehend the time of appearance of a known breed of dogs. There are breeds developed of late and there are breeds that undoubtedly date to deep antiquity which do not have prick ears.

Dog breeding has not reached a level of development and skill such that new breeds arise not of necessity or application to some practical purpose, but simply as a whim of idle fantasy, which creates in its own image a known type, often unsuitable for anything, and then from this type the dog breeder begins to work in a known direction and with forethought creates an animal conforming to the envisioned type.

I cannot look on the subject from this standpoint, and must first ask myself, which breeds of dog do I recognize as the oldest? The find by Mr. Bourguinia gives us the answer. In France, at a place called Clapier, 3 kilometers north of Saint Césaire, near Grasse, in an unknown cave that Bourguinia called “Grotte Camatte,” he found a complete collection of Canis. Out of the pile of bones, he was able to identify dogs of the following breeds:

  1. The badger hound (dachshund) Canis vertagus;
  2. The hound Canis gallicus;
  3. The sporting dog Canis avicularis;
  4. The sheepdog Canis domesticus;
  5. Two types of borzois, one of which was Canis graius and the other, a taller kind, for which he could not make a comparison (probably the large borzoi of Lake Ladoga, which was still unknown at that time).

Finally, he also gathered at the same place bones of the chien-loup (wolfhound), as it is called in France (Canis pomeranus); that these bones belonged to Canis pomeranus is doubtful. In addition to the breeds mentioned, he also found there numerous bones that belonged to various kinds of Great Danes (mastiffs).

One can see in what we have just said that the breeds of dogs in the final period of prehistory were not distinguished by their numbers, and that the breeds found by Bourguinia may be considered the oldest, if not on earth then at least in Europe. The following order emerges:

  1. The borzoi, mastiff, and sheepdog;
  2. The hound, dachshund, and sporting dog.

I have changed the order somewhat, because Bourguinia arranged them in the order in which the bones were found and not by the hierarchical seniority of the breeds.

Analyzing the ears of these breeds, we see that the borzoi, sheepdog, and mastiff, which I place in the first group, all have a semihanging ear, or at least an ear capable of pricking up sharply while listening, and that these breeds may be considered the oldest of the breeds of dog.

I would add one thought to my various notions about the origin of the different breeds of dog from the borzoi. In the improvement or modification of various traits of the hunting dog, the number and variety of animal chased by them play an enormous role; in this case practice has an enormous influence.

Primitive man lived in a constant war with the various large animals around him; this struggle was obviously a daily affair, developed hunting abilities in dogs, and at the same time strongly affected the alteration of the external forms of dogs and their hunting abilities and techniques in the chase of wild animals.

To judge by the present status of hunting dogs among native peoples, they must have belonged not to individuals but to whole villages. In this regard, the status of the hunting dog among the natives in Cambodia is quite characteristic. There, dogs do not have nicknames and in response to a traveler’s question of a native, “What is your dog’s name?,” he replied with surprise, “He’s called ‘dog’.” They all live in the human community, and accompany the first native on the hunt; it should be assumed that in the days of the primitive inhabitant of the land, in exactly the same way the dog was only an assistant and not a servant to the hunter. In recent times, hunting dogs in Sparta by law could not belong to individuals but belonged to a whole city or settlement, and everyone had the right to use them.

The Historical Period I

The first historical reports that we have date to Egyptian, Assyrian, and Persian monuments on which pictures of dogs used in those days for hunting were made fairly well.

In general one cannot say that hunting of fast-running animals was in full swing. Nearly all pictures of hunts show us big animals such as the lion, tiger, bear, wild ass, and so forth. We think we see on Egyptian statues pictures of a dog reminiscent of the borzoi, but a somehow strange borzoi: almost without loins, with enormous prick ears and an upright tail fully bent into a loop onto the back; the dog was smooth-haired.

To judge by the Assyrian and Persian monuments, one ought not to think that the borzois were in full swing there; all pictures of hunts show skirmishes with lions and in general with large animals, and the dogs involved in these skirmishes have nothing in common with borzois, but are reminiscent of crude coursing dogs, something like Great Danes or mastiffs; in antiquity these dogs were brought from India and called “Indian coursing dogs,” which Xenophon mentions in his writings about hunting.

According to the first written data, we see a mention of the dog as early as in the Bible [and] in the books Veda and Zend Avesta, where the dog is man’s companion and friend, a completely domesticated animal.

The first detailed report on hunting that has come down to us was written by Xenophon; he was the first to give us some integral view capable of giving us an understanding of hunting in ancient Greece. But once again he says nothing about hunting with borzois, and the borzoi dog apparently was unknown to ancient Greeks for a very long time, although all of Xenophon’s writings about hunting pertain to rabbit hunting. That hunting with borzois did not exist in those times is clearly visible from the following words of this ancient writer: “The dog rarely surpasses it [the hare] in leg speed, and if the hare is caught, this occurs by chance and not out of the design of its body, because of all animals having a size identical to it, none compares with it in running.” Before this, he says that a good dog on the trail of a hare should spin its tail, and having driven the hare from its lair, the dog should chase it with its bark; this directly indicates a hound and not a borzoi.

Describing deer hunting, Xenophon mentions Indian dogs, saying: “For deer Indian dogs are needed; these dogs are strong, tall, fast afoot, and not without fervor, and with these traits they are able to work”; but here too we are not dealing with borzois, for later, in describing the hunt, he says that these dogs are able to catch a doe but not an adult. Not much speed is needed to catch a suckling!

In boar hunting, [Xenophon] mentions Indian, Cretan, Lockrisian, and Laconian dogs, but here too there is nothing about borzois, since hunting using these animals was not practiced without nets, traps, and snares.

In general, one may note that in those days nets, snares, and traps played the primary role in the hunt, and dogs were used only to find the animal and, with the help of a person, they drove it into the nets.

Coursing dogs, with a borzoilike appearance, which were known in antiquity, were used only as being able to enter into battle with an animal when the animal, tired by the chase, was coming to a stop.

The best dogs were obtained from Epeirus and were called “molosses”; information on them that has come down to us is as follows: this dog was of enormous height, and in appearance was quite similar to the “allanes”3 used in tracking down wild boars in Western Europe in the Middle Ages. They had a prick ear and long feathering, chiefly on the shoulders and neck, in a sort of lion’s mane; it may be conjectured that this was a large sheepdog, since the portrait just described by me closely approaches our Russian sheepdog, which exists throughout southern Russia; in any event, this dog was a coursing dog and not a borzoi.

To what extent coursing with borzois was little practiced by and nearly unknown to the ancients is clear from the work of Ariane, who cautions modern hunters in their manner to take an animal by cunning, using nets and traps, and not by open force; he openly says that all these traps and nets only prove the unfitness of dogs and that, if one has good Gaulish borzois, one does not have to use either nets or snares, since no animal can escape their speed.

In the Roman Empire we see that hunters had dogs – Gaulish, German, and Scottish; they all were renowned for their speed and, to judge by the descriptions, were true borzois.

In all likelihood their type was quite similar to bearded Scottish deerhounds and Irish wolfhounds, but had nothing in common with our long-haired Russian borzoi. In general, under the Roman emperors the breeds of dogs were quite diverse, since the power and majesty of the empire allowed them to be brought from everywhere. All these breeds interbred, and one cannot say that the Romans had any breed that they developed and adapted for local hunting in Italy. To judge by all available data, the ancients did not have good hunting dogs.

In the late stages of the empire, hunting finally disappeared and was considered too tiring an activity for the effete patricians; it was replaced by simple chasing of various animals in the circus, and not hunting dogs but coursing dogs of various breeds were used. Here what was important was not their hunting traits but simple strength, height, and the ability to fight with large predators released into the arenas.

We find the first clear indication of borzois in a description of the hunt among the Gauls by the Roman writer Ariane; according to him, the Gauls conducted the hunt just as we do; an “island”4was surrounded with packs of borzois, which were unleashed on an animal chased by hounds.

Ariane calls these borzois “vertragi,” and praises their speed. According to him, these were very beautiful dogs, among which some were single-color and others skewbald; they later were called “veltres leparari,” or “harehounds.”

They evidently were used only to course hares, as writers of the day were noted for their accuracy, such as Ariane, do not mention the coursing of any animals other than hares.

More detailed information on the borzois of the Romans is not available, although one letter by the Roman prefect Simmach of 364 A.D. has come down to us. In it he thanks his brother Flavius for sending him some Scottish dogs (“canes scotici”), which he exhibited in coursing at the circus and which frightened the public with their size; but to what breed these dogs belonged and to what they were similar are unknown. One may only conjecture that they were Irish wolfhounds, which are known for their size.

The Germans, good hunters, had roughly the same borzois as the Gauls; we can assess their dogs on the basis of Frank laws that set fines for theft or killing of various dogs. A fine of about 1000 rubles in our money was paid for stealing or killing a borzoi; among the Burgundians, moreover, the thief had publicly to give the stolen dog a kiss under the tail.

Although this does not give us any idea of the appearance of the borzoi, it does prove how highly it was esteemed among these peoples.

Among the Franks we find properly organized packs of hounds, but hunting was fully developed only under Charlemagne, who, according to the ancient chronicles, had countless packs of dogs: hounds, borzois, and Great Danes for fighting bear, bison, and elk.

As far as we can judge by available data, all large borzois of Charlemagne belonged to the bearded group and came from Ireland. The chronicler Saint Gill, an old monk, writes the following of the strength and ferocity of these dogs: “In reciprocation to the ambassador of Baghdad from Arun-Alrashid, who brought to Aachen an elephant for the emperor, Charlemagne sent him borzois. Having learned from ambassadors that these indomitable animals enter into battle with any beast, the next day the caliph went hunting for lion, taking with him the Franks who had arrived with their dogs. The dogs fearlessly chased the lion and seized it so fiercely that the Franks had to come galloping up and take it with their swords.” Of course, I cannot vouch how accurate these reports are, but it should be assumed that the dogs probably were large and vicious. As we approach the Middle Ages, the varieties of borzois in the West becoming increasingly defined and clarified; at length, it is clear, we may note there were three kinds of borzois:

  1. A large bearded dog used in hunting wolves and big game in general;

  2. The smooth-haired borzoi, which is entirely similar to the modern one and which was used for hunting of hare; and
  3. The Italian greyhound, which was kept more by ladies and used in coursing rabbits.

In general, in the Middle Ages the dog is first in the life of the court of the day; only falcons could compete with them.

In all works on hunting of that period, the borzoi is mentioned as a house dog that was allowed to climb everywhere, even onto its master’s bed. In some poems one can see that ladies complained of their husbands’ borzois; upon their return from the hunt, dirty dogs crawled onto the furniture and beds, soiling both. Borzois were adorned with expensive collars made of gold and silver; special covers were sewn for them from the most costly materials embroidered in gold. Poets wrote verse in their honor, praising their speed and beauty.

Just how beloved dogs in general and borzois in particular were at that time can be seen from contemporaneous descriptions of the life of the noblemen of the day.

We know that Saint Louis ordered that his dogs be beaten to forewarn him thereby of his mother’s arrival when he was in the room of Queen Margarita. The king’s pack usually slept on his bed. This proves how close these animals were to their masters. Dogs were considered the very best gift.

Louis the Eleventh agreed to release from imprisonment the noble German knight Wolfgang von Payagein only if he could receive borzois of the Bossu breed, and Wolfgang long refused to pay this ransom, preferring to sit in captivity rather than to part with some of his borzois.

Not only men loved their borzois to this degree: ladies had their own hunts and their own beloved borzois who lived with them. For instance, the mother of Francisco the First always had her pack of eight borzois with her.

At the start of the 16th century the hunt in Western Europe took a different direction; big game such as the bison, bear, elk, and so forth vanished, and deer, the wild goat, the wild boar, the wolf, fox, and hare remained; hunting with borzois also is falling into decline and only stylized riding with hounds remains.

Moving from west to east, I shall remain silent about Russia for the time being, as I shall consider the Russian borzoi separately, and I shall turn directly to Asia, about which we have the reports of Marco Polo and reports in translations of the Chinese writings of the monk Ioakinea.

In 1286 the Venetian nobleman Marco Polo journeyed through Tataria and other countries of the East; the reports he made on dogs and hunting among eastern peoples are practically the only ones that we have, and they all relate to the court of the great Kubla Khan, who ruled nearly all of Asia and a large part of Russia at that time.

The reports communicated by Marco Polo contain one strange item, namely utterly complete silence about borzois; the description of the hunts of the great Khan mentions hounds, mastiffs, and bulldogs, even lions and lynxes used like borzois, but borzois proper are not mentioned, although one must not suppose that they did not exist in Khan’s hunt, which was famous for the splendor and abundance of game animals and fowl.

The reports of the monk Ioakinea mention, in the description of Chibin Province, that that country bred large dogs, and the following is reported later in the description of Chesha of the East: “Chinese tropps penetrated into western Turkestan, and then borzoi hounds, among other things, appeared at the court.”

As one can see, all these reports are direly inadequate, and one cannot decide directly to which breed the aforementioned dogs belonged.

One can only surmise that they all belonged to the eastern breed of the borzoi.

One should not think at all that te same kind of long-haired dog that have existed at some time in the east; everything indicates this: the vast steppe spaces, the wide development of the hunt with game fowl and cheetahs – all these factors indicate that hunting with borzois was conducted there in the same way as now, i.e., from horseback.

The breed of eastern borzois is extremely persistent, occurs throughout all of Asia, and in all likelihood has existed a very long time; one can say almost affirmatively that in ancient times it was similar to modern dogs.

The hunts of the eastern rulers were distinguished by their majesty and were for the most part directed toward big game, as we see from the descriptions by Marco Polo, which talk about hunts for bear, lion, wild donkeys, and so forth, but there is nothing about hunting for wolf, fox, and hare; if such game was pursued, it was with golden eagles and not borzois.

Today we do not see that among native peoples hunting with borzois is conducted other than from horseback or that borzois are kept in large quantity. Some peoples, such as the Turkmens, highly treasure their dogs but do not keep many of them. A Turkmen will travel 200 or 300 versts5 to mate his bitch with a famous male, but keep three or four dogs while of course strictly safeguarding their pure breeding. All these dogs are distinguished by their speed and small size, but they are not ferocious; in general, their purebred appearance is quite apparent to the eye.

Whence the eastern borzoi acquired the characteristic ear “under cloaks,” as they say, is hard to decide, but one may conjecture that it increased and hung because of lack of practice in hearing, and indeed: hearing is not especially well developed in all eastern borzois in comparison with vision, which is distinguished by sharp-sightedness and, so to speak, by the ability quickly to find game.

In Zapiski Okhotnika Vostochnoi Sibiri [Memoirs of a Hunter of Eastern Siberia], Mr. Cherksov talks about Mongolian dogs that have nothing in common, in terms of appearance, with the eastern borzoi but which possess great speed, ferocity, and strength; these dogs belong to northern China and our Southeastern Siberia; I shall not discuss it now, since it will fall under the special group of the Siberian dog.

African borzois, the “salukis,” differ from the eastern borzoi in their enormous height and semihanging ears. In paintings Goras Vernet gives us a superb idea of this breed; it is quite similar to the common thick-haired breed, but is distinguished by its ferocity and height.

This breed is very highly esteemed among the Arabs and is used for hunting gazelles, hare, and wild boar, which thoroughly proves both its speed and its ferocity, although the Arabs also hunt on horseback.

As I stated above, in all likelihood the “saluki” is not of East Asian origin but more likely of European origin, and entered Africa through Spain, during the Mauritanian dominion – an assertion also proven by the fact that the best of these dogs are bred in Morocco, and in general in countries to the west on the northern shore of Africa. These dogs are so valuable that in former times African sovereigns sent them only to the Spanish and French courts, as royal gifts and only in limited numbers.

We have no reports at all on coursing in other countries of the world, and in all likelihood it never existed there, since we know nothing of the borzois of America and Australia, which do not exist there, and probably never have existed. In general, Asia is the cradle of the borzoi, as it also is of all mankind.

The Historical Period II

The closer we come to the present, the more the role of the borzoi diminishes in the West, and stylized riding with hounds and rifle hunting with various breeds of sporting dogs begin to predominate. This becomes understandable if one takes into account population growth and the subdivision of land ownership.

I mentioned above borzoi breeds in the West. In the Middle Ages there were three breeds: the large bearded variety, the English wolfhound, and the greyhound. The large bearded variety is beginning to disappear more and more, and is used only in wolf hunting and only then with the aid of large coursing dogs grouped under the name “allanes,” which does not argue in support of the ferocity and speed of borzois, far inferior in qualities to our Russian long-haired borzoi.

Among all peoples at this time the first palm in hunting should be given of course to the French, with respect to both the quality and number of breeds of hunting dogs and with respect to their extraordinary training. Hunting literature has existed in France since time immemorial and is striking in its diversity. In it we find works in prose and verse; even kings did not balk at working with their dogs and wrote whole treatises about hunting.

From the 16th to the late 18th centuries, hunting in France stood at its highest level of perfection. Everyone engaged in hunting, from the king down to the lowest nobleman; even the clergy took part, and all participated not as mere amusement but as a serious matter.

On the basis of all the foregoing, I shall adopt France as the present model for the hunting world in the West. Everything done there also was done in the rest of Europe, but with the difference that in France everything pertaining to hunting and dogs was done better than in other countries.

Someone might say to me that I am too much taken by the French as hunters and that I am forgetting the English. To this I would reply: the English as hunters are incomparably inferior to the French; they are perhaps more skillful dog breeders, but in no way are they hunters; all breeds of English dogs are no more than French breeds modified, and most of them came to England with the Normans, once again from France. Some of them, such as the hounds, have been ruined rather than improved by the English, having lost the magnificent voices of their French forebears.

We are given a better picture of hunting in France in these three centuries by Baron Noarman in his work History of Hunting in France, where he writes: “The 16th century in France begins under the reign of a hunter king who is a big dog-lover; Louis XII writes in his own hand a biography of his dog ‘Riole,’ which served him, truth be told, for 30 years.

“Francis I had detailed knowledge of and remembered the traits of every dog in his pack, and personally called by name those with which he wished to go hunting. He built a magnificent kennel at Fontainebleau. He and his son, Henry II, personally engaged in breeding to improve the breed.”

The work on hunting by Charles IX proves to what extent he engaged in the upkeep and raising of dogs.

Henry III had about 2000 dogs.

Henry IV also personally observed his dogs, which can be seen from his extensive correspondence with various noblemen.

Louis XIII slept with his dogs.

Louis XIV, although he did not work with his dogs, nonetheless loved them very much and hunted constantly.

Louis XV personally kept a list of his dogs, and personally kept diaries during hunts, working on this much more than on affairs of state.

While kings spent this much time on and so enjoyed hunting and dogs, the nobility spent even more time on them, both out of their personal taste for hunting and out of imitation of the court.

The French hunting literature, which began in approximately 1394, continues to the present, and offers a broad, detailed picture of everything concerning hunting and various breeds of dogs and game fowl. One can see from these sources that all kinds of dog breeds from Europe, Asia, and Africa were brought to France. Beginning in the reign of Charlemagne we encounter in France Indian, Russian, Tatar, and other dogs.

All that could be had in this regard was had. For example, Saint Louis, on returning from his imprisonment, brought with himself a pack of eastern hounds closely similar to our Russian hounds of old. Charlemagne obtained dogs from Denmark, Russia, and what was then the Far East, from Caliph Alrashid, from Baghdad.

Analyzing the role played by the borzoi dog in the West during the Middle Ages, we will note readily that it never held the same place as among us in Russia; in the West it served more as an auxiliary animal in coursing with hounds, by the stylized method, especially the large bearded borzoi used in coursing of wolf and wild boar.

In describing medieval borzois, I shall allow myself to quote verbatim, in translation, all that Baron Noarman writes aout them in his book: “No single breed of dog was used in the Middle Ages for such diverse purposes as the borzoi.”

They were used to hunt all kinds of animals, from deer to rabbit, even in falcon hunting, when the falcons knowcked down large birds such as cranes, herons, or great bustards (Otis tarda), borzois were released to assist them. “The large borzois designated to fight wild boar, the wolf, and other large animals were called ‘pack borzois’ (‘levriers d’estric’), ‘lateral borzois’ (‘levriers de flane’), and ‘greeting borzois’ (‘levriers de fête’).

“The first of these were released to chase after the animal as soon as it emerged onto the edge area. Lateral borzois were released laterally and greeting borzois were released head-on. The largest and strongest always were chosen as greeting borzois. Heavy, mongrel house dogs were used more for hunting of wild boar.

“Large pack borzois were mostly long-haired, and were gray, black, or red in color. They were not considered to be so beautiful as the smooth-haired dogs, but they were more persistent and easily tolerated cold, wet weather.

“These dogs were supposed to have a head longer than wide, large eyes full of fire, a long neck – a sign of speed, a long shoulder, a wide peak, strong and muscular ribs, a straight pastern, a lean and wiry leg, a small paw, and hard nails.”

The best of the pack dogs were obtained from Brittany, Ireland, Scotland, and northern Europe.

The Irish wolfhound was considered the best and largest throughout all of Europe. Goldschmidt says that he saw many of these dogs, the largest of which was 4 feet tall (27 1/2 vershoks6) and was equal in height to a yearling calf.

The borzois of Sir Betam, which were not forbidden to enter the dining hall, extended their heads over the shoulders of those sitting at the table.

To judge by some skulls found in Ireland, the dogs to which these skulls belonged could have been from 36 to 40 English inches (about 21 vershoks) at the point of the shoulder. In Ireland, where wolves disappeared in the 18th century, these dogs were called “wolf-dogs.” They were covered with stiff feathering in small curls, mostly iron-gray in color. This marvelous breed, quite rare in the last century, has been lost entirely of late.

Scottish deerhounds were similar to the Irish ones, differing only in having a smaller height and weaker extremeties.

Hare hounds always were considered the noblest. They all were smooth-haired, short, and lighter in appearance. Their colors were various: there were black dogs, dark mottled dogs, and white dogs, but the white ones were preferred over all others.

Gas de la Bigne describes for us in a poem the short-haired hare hound:

A muzzle like that of a wolf,
Ribs of a lion, neck of a swan,
A falcon’s eye,
White in color,
Ears like those of a snake,
Lie on the head;
The shoulder of a wild goat,
The sides of a wild doe,
Nails of a deer, tail of a rat,
Hare’s haunches and a “cat’s paw.”

Gaston Feb, who only transposed into prose the poetry of Gas, adds that “a good borzoi should have a long head, somewhat thickish and similar to the head of a pike; good canines and good teeth that do not push past each other, i.e., that are not in an overshot bite; straight pasterns, unbent, as on a bull, and the space between thighs with a good clearance.

These elegant beasts were inseparable pets of the nobility and noble ladies of the Middle Ages. Adorned with magnificent collars and heraldic cloth, they slept with their masters on their beds and accompanied them in all their movements and on their journeys. The Berryan nobility, which consisted of a society of knights with the goal of mutual love and support, adopted as its emblem the image of a borzoi whose collar bore the inscription: “All as one” (“tous un!”). The dogs of Brittany, Picardie, and Champagne and dogs imported from England, Spain, Portugal, and the East were considered best for hare coursing.

Mainly in the 14th and 15th centuries Gaston Feb, The Hunting Books of Herzogs d’Orleans, and Philippe de Comin praise Brittany dogs, with which they hunted for hare in the same way as with “pack dogs.” Haubert’s work of 1599, Hare Hunting With Borzois, highly praises the borzois of Picardie and Champagne, which “glide like the wind.”

In the hunting books of Henry IV, hare hounds are shown to have been imported from Champagne, and since then they have constantly gone by this name in the royal hunts.

Selyankur says: “In France the best borzois come from Champagne and Picardie, provinces that abound in open fields where the hares are faster than elsewhere, and make it necessary to keep more purebred dogs of extraordinary speed and strength.”

English wolfhounds became famous in the 14th century. In the memoirs of Frewasar, the duke of Lancaster sent as a present to the king of Portugal six English wolfhounds “suitable for any game.” Louis XI received the same gift from Lord Hosting and Marshal Vielville from Lord Dudley in 1550.

Selyankur notes that the English surpass other hunters in the breeding and raising of wolfhounds and other dogs.

Spanish and Portugese borzois also were highly esteemed; there were two varieties of the latter: one variety, used for hunting on the plains, was considered the fastest in Europe; the other variety, for hunting in moutainous terrain, was distinguished by a shorter body and was sharper and faster on short runs.

Under Louis XII and Louis XIV, borzois became rare in France, so that they were purchased for royal hunts in Constantinople and other eastern countries.

A letter from the Marseille consul Pierre Bon to Charles IX mentions that the Algerian king had sent him horses, barbarian mares, lions, bears, and dark mottled borzois. These borzois probably were the famous “salukis,” which breed is held sacred by the Arabs and with which they hunt jackals, gazelles, and antelopes.

Selyankur says that the borzois also include greyhounds, which are used to course rabbits.

They were called greyhounds only in France and Italy, which is in all likelihood their homeland. In England they are called “Italian greyhounds.”

In southern France yet another variety of borzois was used in the recent era. It is believed that this variety came from interbreeding of borzois with hounds, and it is called the “charnegre borzoi,” but it is something midway between borzois and hounds and may not be considered a true borzoi.

From 1844 hunting with borzois was finally banned in France, and this variety of these noble animals disappeared almost entirely there.

Speaking of the borzois of Western Europe, I must not fail to mention some coursing dogs of that time, since they were quite similar to borzois in both appearance and function.

As I stated above, these dogs were called “alanes,” had a borzoilike appearance, and smooth hair but nearly the head of a bulldog, and were used for hunting bear, wild boar, and wolf; in the last case they were used together with borzois. The alanes were distinguished by their strength, height, and ferocity, so that they had to be kept constantly in muzzles except on the hunt. Their dirty-white hair color, small yellow eyes, and rosy nose do not force us to conjecture borzois, bu probably something quite close to modern bull terriers, except of enormous height – about 21 vershoks at the point of the shoulder.7

If we look closely at hunting with borzois in the West, we are struck by the minor role that there befell the borzoi compared with its role among us in Russia. In the West all attention is focused on hounds, and indeed the training of hounds reaches there the extreme required in strict stylized riding. Without such training, the hunter would almost always return with empty saddlebags.

But the long-haired dog, as it was practiced among us in Russia, did not exist in the West and could not even have existed with those types of borzois that the hunters there had.

Hare hunting with borzois was carried out on horseback with short-haired borzois not of the size that ours are. Foxes were not hunted at all; even hounds that hunted fox well were considered flawed and not to have fine scent.

I shall not undertake to describe the wolfdogs of that day, but I shall better describe a method of wolf coursing that gives a vivid idea of their speed and ferocity.

Howl-hunting8 and coursing of a whole family of wolves was not known. Young wolves usually were hunted with hounds, while adults first were surrounded by means of a “steamed dog” (“limier”), then the “island” was encircled either by a cordon or with nets, leaving only one place where the animal was directed toward the borzois.

When all was ready, the pack was unleashed on the animal’s trail, and the cordon began to cry, trying to direct the wolf toward the packs. There usually were four packs of three dogs each: as soon as the wolf bounded out of the “island,” one pack took up the chase; then one pack came from each of the two sides, and finally the fourth pack was released head-on. But it often was the case that even against 12 dogs the wolf escaped unharmed, as male dogs refused to take female wolves in heat; as a result, an effort was made to have several ferocious bitches in the packs. Many works on wolf hunting advise not to include in packs other than the first pack, the pack unleashed on the chase, borzois or the aforementioned allanes, or a crossbreed between them and borzois, in the belief that in this case the first pack has only to slow the animal a bit in order to give time to catch up to the coursing Great Danes, which were already making short work of the wolf better than the borzois.

It seems to me that the description of wolf hunting just given clearly proves the insubstantial character of the borzois of that time. They obviously possessed neither speed nor ferocity. Hunting a single wolf required so many preparations and entailed so many difficulties and costs. At least 12 borzois were needed to take a single animal; if they had had real borzois, they would not have needed anything like that many.

How far this hunt is from the dashing hunt that we have using real, fast, ferocious dogs, when the pack rushes forth on sight and the in-field borzoi handlers skillfully receive the full-grown wolf out from under one or two packs of borzois! What movement and what a rich take in comparison with Western hunters!

There is a whole throng of people and packs of dogs triumphally return home after tracking down a single wolf! Among us, in contrast, the hunt returns home having taken a whole pack, including full-grown wolves, yearlings, and newborn pups!

One need not keep either Great Danes or alanes; our dashing long-haired giants do it all, and so crack the hare in the chest that its paws just hop to and fro, and will take a full-grown wolf without a hitch, and even if the animal is larger, such as a bear or elk, they will show it no quarter!

What is surprising is this complete inability to “howl-hunt” wolves in the West, even though wolves were in great abundance there in the 16th and 17th centuries.

More than once the government had to take steps to eradicate them, because of the threat to the safety of not only livestock but humans as well.

Special governmental hunters called “capitaines lauvetiers” were established in France in the 17th and 18th centuries. They were given the duty of ridding the state of wolves by all possible methods; but despite this, wolf hunting in the form practiced then and now here in Russia is mentioned nowhere.

Where we should give full credit to Western hunters in general and to the French in particular is their surprising training of hounds.

Separate packs were kept for each animal; packs for hare did not chase any other animal, but only that for which they were kept.

An animal, once roused, was not abandoned by the dogs, even if exactly the same animals turned up right before their eyes. They only chased the first animal, and dogs who strayed from the trail, once adopted, were systematically culled from the packs and, their other good traits not withstanding, were not allowed to breed.

The Historical Period in Russia

Turning to the historical period of existence of the borzoi and of the hunt using the borzoi in Russia, I am struck by the extreme paucity of sources in this regard. The information that we have is so slim and so poor in content that it is almost impossible to extract anything clear and positive from it.

The long-haired dog obviously has never been considered a serious matter among us and has almost no literature devoted to it.

Our czars who were considered excellent hunters are all but unknown, unless one counts Vladimir Monomakh, Aleksei Mikhailovich, Peter the Second, and Elizabeth Petrovna.

Vladimir Monomakh also wrote a few words about hunting, which have come down to us in his will. Aleksei Mikhailovich, who left us his book Ulozheniya Sokol’nich’ya Puti [The Codes of Falconry], only deals with hunting with game fowl. It is with good reason that we have come up with a hunting saying: “A czar’s falcon hunt, a baron’s long-haired dog,” and that our czars and grand knights and grand dukes never engaged in falcon hunting.

It seems to me that in this case the religious beliefs of our forebears regarding the dog played a big part; the dog, the “stinking cur,” was always considered an unclean, outcast animal that boyars and princes did not admit to their chambers. Consequently, we have no special saints who are patrons of dogs and hunting, such as Saint Humbert in the West, and a dog that runs by chance into a church is considered to have desecrated it. Even now the common man has some prejudice against people who live with dogs at kennels, considering them to be unclean and to be profaned by their job.

Understandably, of late all these views on the dog have ben expressed even more sharply, especially with regard to such persons as our grand dukes and czars.

Consequently, in view of the almost complete illiteracy of our ancestors, the absence of written records of our hunting is not surprising either.

Wealthy boyars, although literate, considered it demeaning to themselves to write anything about dogs. Given our vast distances and their complete illiteracy, the common gentry hunted in their own domains, conducting this activity by tradition, and did not need any memoirs or works in this regard.

Thus, those few written data that we have pertain to the most recent period of the borzoi’s existence.

I am convinced that in many old noble families valuable documents concerning hunting with borzois will be found; but it should be said, unfortunately, that we have a more careless and indifferent attitude toward various family archives than anywhere else.

In this case, the correspondence of some two friends or relatives communicating to each other their hunting thoughts and innovations may be more interesting and valuable than entire modern works in regard to the forms that the long-haired borzoi should have.

But enough of this; let us try to penetrate the darkness that surrounds us on all sides as soon as we try to press into the past of Russian coursing.

Before turning to written sources, let us see to what ancient Russia was similar, and which animals lived there. From modern sources, we already see that a large part, or more accurately almost all, of European Russia was covered with impassable, dense forests.

What was there in more distant times?

Then there probably was almost no place free of forest, and Russia in no way differed from impassable Eastern Siberia.

In the historical period we still find the following in Russia: bison, elk, deer, urus, wild boar, bear, and wolverine.

There were many of these animals, and they were hunted everywhere; we do not know the exact truth, of course, but we can only hypothesize that hunting was conducted by roughly the same methods, excluding of course firearms, as today in Eastern Siberia, but with the difference that the abundance of animals was incomparably greater than in the best area of this part of Asia.

Did the inhabitants of the historical epoch have the borzoi? Probably so, and I suppose it was the same borzoilike form that was cited by the Aryans and whose remains have been described by Mr. Anuchin.

We would not err, of course, if we said that that borzoi was the direct relative of our long-haired borzoi. I shall go beyond that and say that even now we can see a similar type of this dog in the large, borzoilike dog of the Siberian natives, from which the long-haired borzoi must have formed.

One of our young travelers, N. L. Gondatti, was so kind as to give me a complete and detailed description of this breed of dog, which he had occasion to observe during his journey to the Samoyed people, in Northwestern Siberia, in 1885.

Apart from the usual reports to be found in any description, my personal acquaintance with Mr. Gondatti afforded me the opportunity to ask him several purely hunting questions, from the answers to which I came even more to the conclusion that the large working dog of Siberia is a relative of our long-haired borzoi.

Let us examine it from two sides; first I shall describe in detail its external appearance, and then the purely hunting features of the borzoi dog.

N.L. Gondatti describes it as follows: the dog is very large, and arshin9 or more at the point of shoulder, and is covered with thick feathering of various colors, gray-brown predominating. The color of the muzzle is always darker than the rest of the head; the feathering on the neck forms a collar and in general is in two forms over the entire body: thick and warm everywhere, forming a decorative feathering, lighter than the other color on the neck and sides, and the carraige on the tail, which the dog never bends into a circle but always holds up, except when it is in an excited state – then it slightly raises the tail and holds it almost horizontally.

The head is wedge-shaped and covered with short, smooth hair; the eyes are large, dark, and bulgy; the ears are small, semiprick, with bent ends. The body is short and massive, is reminiscent of the wolf, and has a belly; the chest is broad; there is a small peak; the neck is short and thick. The forelegs are perfectly straight and wideset; the hindlegs are not bow-shaped but short; the dog stands on its nails and claws when it walks across a hard surface.

These dogs possess some speed and have “bounce” for catching an animal. Their scent is little developed, and if they have to track an animal, they do so more by sight. Upon seeing the animal, they silently jump it with great ferocity and hold onto it firmly; they never bark while attacking, and indeed in general bark almost none at all; some are kept on a leash because of their ferocity. When they do occasionally bark, they do so with a short, broken bark, like that of the borzoi.

These dogs are used only in the forest terrain of Siberia, and are not found in the northern tundras. When this dog becomes unusable for hunting, it serves the natives as a draft animal. The same breed occurs throughout all of Siberia, both Western and Eastern.

Mr. Cherkasov, in his Zapiski Okhotnika Vostochnoi Sibiri, says nothing new and only leads us to believe that various dogs are found: some are suitable for one game animal, and others for some other animal; referring to a special variety of Siberian dog, he says: “In general, Siberian dogs are very spirited and strong, especially the current Mongolian breed, or as they say here, the ‘Mungal dog’ (here the ‘squeezers’ of China, but on the other side of the Arguni and Onona rivers they generally are called ‘munguls’). The dogs of the Mongolian breed are extremely tall, strong, and shaggy; they usually are black, and thus are reminiscent of Newfoundlands. Many of them will alone attack wolves and put them down without difficulty.”

It is a pity that Cherkasov is not a hound hunter; his words in his description of the dogs therefore are somewhat inconsistent; he says that the dogs are of different breeds, but does not give us a detailed description of these breeds. Speaking of the Mongolian dog, one may suspect that it is indeed a real native dog, and although he compares it to the Newfoundland, but at the same time he speaks of its ability to strangle a wolf, which must first be caught, and the Newfoundland cannot do that.

This means that the native dog must have speed, and good speed at that, to catch and strangle a wolf alone.

In describing hunting of various animals, Cherkasov mentions several times the speed of the native dogs. For instance, in a fox hunt he says: “If the place is clean and the fox is taken while eating, or better yet at the lair, Sobolka, my experienced, slight dog, will certainly kill it in short order, especially if the master hastens to cut off the fox’s path and hence does not allow it to evade the dog to the side.” Further describing the hunting of foxes with dogs, he mentions cases of which any dog hunter will speak: the same drives, the same deception of a young dog by the tail – the “pipe.” All this proves just one thing: that the dog described by Cherkasov is capable of catching as well as a borzoi.

Describing a rabbit hunt, he says: “In the Transbaikal area there is no rabbit hunting by dogs; of course, I wouldn’t call it a long-haired dog if, rarely, working dogs are thrown out after a hare and tear apart the poor thing as thoroughly as borzois would.” But is this really not coursing? Apart from the foregoing, according to the very same Mr. Cherkasov, all animals, whether it be wolf, fox, hare, elk, Manchurian deer, roebucks, common deer, or wild boar, can be caught easily by a working dog; but all these animals have good speed and it is nothing at all for a hound, a sporting dog, or a guard dog to catch them. Even a borzoi must have good legs to do anything.

Further evidence of the speed of the working dog is that all hunts are done on horseback and not on foot, which would be more convenient in dense forest, without any roads or footpaths.

Marco Polo mentions that same dogs on his journeys, in a description of the northern countries and the method of customary travel there: “They trained to pull these sleds,” he says, “special animals which are similar to dogs and which could even be given this name, although they are the size of an ass. They are very strong and have grown used to pulling sleds.”

Marco Polo obviously did not see these dogs, and heard exaggerated tales about them, of course, but the dogs of which he speaks undoubtedly were large and powerful.

Mr. Cherkasov also mentions a wild dog living on the Amur, but he does not give any information about what kind of dog it was; it would be extremely interesting to learn the details as to what kind of animal this was and whether it had anything in common with the native working dog.

It seems to me that something positive can be derived from the foregoing: that the Siberian working dog differs almost not a whit from the the hunting borzoi in external appearance or other purely hunting traits. It is much cruder than the borzoi, does not possess its elegance, but the essence, the foundation, is the same. If one takes account of the time and the dog’s ability to change in external forms, the kinship of the working Siberian dog and the long-haired borzoi becomes obvious.

Even the very character of the hunt, which is believed to have been identical in ancient Russia with hunting in Eastern, or totally forested, Siberia, does not allow us to admit other forms.

It is understandable that subsequently, when such animals as the bison, aurochs, and wild boar or the bear began to be encountered less often and hunting became something of a diversion rather than a profession or a means of existence, the shape and traits of dogs had to change. Lighter and faster dogs but dogs that were not heavy or massive and were suitable for hunting large game came into demand.

Having attentively read the hunting memoirs of Mr. Cherkasov, you experience the positive notion that among the native dogs there are faster ones and less fast ones. This alone speaks to the possibility that, through selection, a very fast dog can be created from a local working dog, especially since, in the words of N. L. Gondatti, this dog has “bounce” – this inestimable distinguishing trait inherent only in one breed of borzois on eart: the Russian long-haired borzoi. “Bounce,” I believe, must be developed precisely from coursing, or in general from the pursuit of game in forested terrain with clearings, primarily before open-field terrain. A dog, on entering an open space and seeing the game before it, instinctively rushed toward, trying to take it at precisely the moment when trees and brush could not interfere. Hence, “bounce” developed more and more as forests were cleared.

Even now we encounter in wooded terrain not continuous fields but clearings plowed up throughout the whole forest. In the primitive state of Russia, all fields probably were nothing but plowed clearings, and the huntsmen of that day could only hunt in these places by pursuing game through the forest, or by lying in wait for it when it appeared in open space.

Mr. Cherkasov mentions in his memoirs the scent of the working dog, while N. L. Gondatti says that its scent is little developed. For my part, I am inclined more to the view of Mr. Gondatti, on the following grounds: first, a dog pursuing big game does not need to possess great scent, and secondly, the method of taking the game does not require strong scent, since the game is quickly caught by the dog and is overcome not by fatigue but by speed.

Scent in itself intensifies or grows weaker through practice, and the presence of some scent in the working dog of Siberia does not break down my hypothesis of the origin of the working borzoi from it.

I have often had occasion to encounter borzois with scent who could seek out hares on a trail. Try giving the first borzoi that comes your way a strip of woods or a pasture, and in short order it will learn to track hares by scent. I recall that I had two borzois that, on their own, hunted constantly in the woods and a large forest as long as I did not lie in wait for them and did not block their way. One of them even chased a hare while barking, but at the same time the other one lay in wait to the side, trying to catch the game somewhere on a clearing or a road; then the one that was hunting appeared, and the friend amicably shared their take. It is understandable that working dogs must have some scent, otherwise they could not orient themselves in the woods, and, what is the main thing, could not recognize with what kind of game they would be dealing, but one cannot assume a scent equal to that of a hound.

It is a pity that all reports on working dogs of Siberia come down to us not from huntsmen, but rather from rifle hunters or simply from travelers who do not pay any attention to those aspects of the character of dogs that are of the most interest for comparing native breeds with borzois.

It would be interesting to verify, for instance, their speed and ferocity, and even changes in external forms, as the woods give way to more open terrain and steppes in Southern Siberia. There is no doubt that the forms and character of bounding of dogs should change, but for now this remains a surmise, no more.

In analyzing the hunting qualities of the Siberian dog, one must forgive its many sins from the standpoint of the huntsman.

The native is unable to have various dogs in hunting for various animals, and his dog must track all game and even fowl, from the bear to the woodgrouse of hazelgrouse. Only practice and nothing more can give it such abilities. That the natives make some selection in their dogs can be seen from the words of N. L. Gondatti, who directly states that only dogs unsuitable for hunting are used in harness; hence, dogs suitable and unsuitable for hunting are born in the same breed, and from this some selection is made during breeding.

In the writings of the same Mr. Cherkasov, we find reports that breeds are better and worse, that some hunters are renowned for their dogs for many versts around, and sell the pups from their bitches to other hunters for good money even before they are born, in the mother’s womb. How high the value of a good bitch runs we can see in one tale by Mr. Cherkasov, where he recalls two hunting brothers who wished to part company after their father’s death. Among other property, there was a famous bitch that the brothers valued at five hundred rubles and they began to cast lots to see who would get her. Five hundred rubles is a lot of money to a peasant who lives solely on his hunting.

If we look back a bit, we will be struck by the difference between our long-haired borzoi and the Western bearded borzoi. Why our long-haired borzoi has now made its way to the West, having incomparably better hunting abilities than the bearded borzoi, is utterly inexplicable. We see from all the foregoing how much the Western borzoi is decisively inferior in every regard to the Russian long-haired borzoi, but why the bearded borzoi did not have the same qualities as the long-haired borzoi I shall not try to explain, although in the remote past Germany and France probably were covered with the same kind of forests as Russia and Siberia.

Describing Gaulish borzois, Ariane, mentioned by “Xenophon the Younger,” extols their speed, saying: “The Gauls engage in hunting not out of profit but out of passion; they do not use nets, since the speed of their dogs suffices to catch game.” Then he talks of Gaulish borzois, likening them to the wind. These obviously were extremely fast dogs, but as to whether they were bearded borzois or some other variety we have no reports, since none of the Roman writers gives us a detailed description of the external appearance of this breed of borzois; we do not even know whether they were long-haired (shaggy) or smooth-haired.

The Historical Period in Russia II

Now let us turn to written documents on hunting with borzois and hounds in Russia; they are divided into two parts: the first part is reports by foreign writers, and the second includes reports and works on hunting by Russian and Polish writers.

The first written report that we have of hunting in Russia is the will of Vladimir Manonakh to his children. In it he advises them not to ignore hunting, but the will does not contain any mention not only of borzois but also of any dogs whatsoever. As we may note, Vladimir Manomakh focused more on such big game as the bison, elk, bear, and so forth, where borzoi dogs could not be used.

We learn from some recent writers that coursing gained some structure under the great Prince Vasilii IV, but on what basis this is said and which sources were used are not indicated.

Foreign writers on Russia do not delve into any details in any of their works, but say only that hunting was carried out with the aid of borzois, without describing in detail the appearance of these borzois.

For us, of course, there can be no doubt that borzois existed and were used for hunting, but it would be of interest to know what features these dogs had, and the foreign writers do not explain this point.

In old Polish hunting books of the 14th century we find just one statement, namely: it is stated in a description of wolf hunting that to course this animal one must not use short-haired Polish borzois, but “Slovenian dogs,” which are noted for their size and strength. The Poles probably abtained these dogs from Russia, with which there were permanent relations. This is all that one can draw from foreign sources.

We have the first detailed work on the long-haired dog in the book Code [Regul] of Coursing. This Book of Hunting Code of the 6th Day of August 1635. A Work of the Riga German the Stolnik10Krest’yanin (Christian) Al’gerdovish Son of Fonlessin, Delivered to Czar Aleksei Mikhailovich, Autocrat of All Russia.

This book, originally written in German and translated into Russian by Arkadii Stankevich, a Smolensk member of the Polish gentry, is an extremely valuable document for the history of coursing in Russia. We learn from it that at that time coursing and the breeds of borzois were fully defined and clear in the mind of contemporaneous hunters.

Although the book was quite brief, it is fairly clear that the long-haired borzois of that time were the same as now: there were good ones and bad ones; the description of conformation points reads: “I must show you a well-conformed dog, to be selected for the following points: first, a lean, longish head without a bend; the muzzle should be equal to the head in length; no overshot bite, bulgy eyes; the back sloping; forelegs straight, without pretension; the hindlegs the same, but a long, cresent-shaped tail; feathering long and hanging.” Later, going into detail, he says that if the dog has a rather small bend in the muzzle, this does not take away, as long as the eyes are bulgy, even with a thickish muzzle that does not, however, have an overshot bite. From this we see what importance hunters of the day attached to a dog’s eyes.

Then we read that apart from straightness the forelegs should have elbows turned outward; ribs below the elbows; nails short and thick on both fore- and hindlegs, so that they “tap like a boot”; the forelegs, like the hindlegs, lean; “I shall not describe the back, sloping or tentlike.”

In the male the ribs and thigh muscles should be thick, loose-hanging in the loin; lines fine and taut; the female has longish thigh muscles, strong kidneys, round and thick underleg areas, an acute occiput bent somewhat toward the bottom; in the male the occiput should be raised somewhat toward the top; a coarse beard11. The width of the rump is such that four fingers can be laid freely on it; the ribs are low and hanging but thick: “For all these points, the male should have a powerful chest that thrusts forward, while the female should be more powerful in the body. I say not only this because these dogs are fast, but I boldly state that is the aforementioned other dogs do not have these points, they can hardly be called fast dogs or hunters; from them one rarely gets fervid ones, or quick ones; this first point is described as to on what basis stately and dashing ones can be chosen.”

Looking into this description of the borzoi, one could say that it would be impossible to depict and describe better the truly remarkable, powerful conformation, whose distinguishing features are a lean head and muzzle, bulgy eyes, thick, dense ribs descending below the elbows, and straight, lean leag with strong thigh muscles.

The respected Pyotr Mikhailovich Machevarianov, in his Zapiski Psovago Okhotnikia Simbirskoi Gubernii [Memoirs of a Huntsman of Simbirsk Province], in a description of the Russian long-haired borzoi, strikingly said the same thing as the book in question, although the deceased, whom I knew personally, did not have it in hand.

Indeed, the dog just described must have been both fast and strong in a fight with a wolf.

In order to confirm my opinion of the existence of borzois in that distant time as poor as the ones we see now, I draw the reader’s attention to chapters 13, 14, 15, and 16 of the same Code of Coursing.

It is clear from these chapters that the same faults in the points of borzoi dogs were encountered both under Czar Aleksei Mikhailovich and now; some had legs gone askew, some with bent legs, and so forth.

As for management of the breed, at that time, as we learn from the same Code, the same sloppy hunters as now were around. This is clear from Chapter 21, which states in part: “If a hunter knows his own dogs, then he does not mix their breed with others; if yours are fast, you must know their bloodlines, the breeding; keep these, but if there are none of this kind, don’t be distressed; if hunters with no common sense see a fast dog somewhere, they will praise it no end; without even learning of what breed it is, they will begin to do their utmost in front of each other to sell their bitch or male, and later will boast among themselves that they acquired fast dogs; but how they will feed a dog of an unknown nature for a whole year [they don’t know] and nothing will come of this venture.” It is clear from this that at that time we Russian hunters suffered the same fault as now.

To what extent the dog breeds in Russia were pure before is hard to say, but in view of our proximity to the Tatars on the one hand and to Poland on the other, one may say almost with certainty that the hunters who were neighbors to these two nationalities of course bred their long-haired dogs with eastern and short-haired dogs. With distance into the interior of Russia, the long-haired dog was unquestionably more purebred, and there probably were places to which neither the eastern nor the short-haired borzoi penetrated; it seems to me that one cannot say that there were absolutely no interbreedings.

To judge by locale, these interbreedings were even born of necessity in some cases, especially with eastern borzois, since even then there were many hunters who traveled about in steppe localities where a long-haired dog was unsuitable.

Of late, specifically in the reign of Anna Ioannovna, we see vividly that interbreedings in borzoi dogs existed and were carried out with eastern and short-haired dogs.

We have come by the correspondence among Volynskii, Saltykov, and Naumov; these letters were printed in the Zhurnal Okhoty [Hunting Journal], published by Min in December 1859, under the title “Hunting Letters From the Last Century.”

These letters are interesting in many regards. For instance, they directly speak of the breeding of bearded dogs, as well as English and Polish smooth-haired dogs.

There is also mention of interbreedings in these letters. For instance, Saltykov asks Volynskii to send him a bearded bitch for mating with the short-haired male of the Polish ambassador Count Zawisz, and Volynskii then writes Saltykov about the bitch “Tatarka,” evidently a Crimean.

All these reports still do not mean that the breed of long-haired dogs was interbred at all; nor could it have been interbred in the central forest terrain, where without it coursing was inconceivable. How such hunting was accomplished at that time we can see from two sources: the aforementionedCode of Coursing, and the memoirs of Bolotov.

Chapter 3 of the Code clearly states that hunting was carried out in the woods. [The hunters] lined up with the dogs alongside a small detached forest and tried to drive the animal along roads or clearings, moving behind the hounds. In this kind of hunt, long-haired borzois were needed, of course.

Describing coursing in the forests of Pskov Province, Bolotov says that they hunted in a clearing in the woods where he had nearly hurt himself on a stump. Of course, at that time Russia was in many placed covered with solid forest, and it was impossible to hunt except on roads, in clearings, and in short strips of trees that connect larger forests. What was needed here was a quick long-haired borzoi with its lightning-like bound.

In general, in these sources we see that the long-haired dog predominated in kennels of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. The Code, for instance, nowhere mentions any borzois other than the long-haired ones.

Short-haired, Crimean, and bearded dogs and, from them, purebreds can be seen at the start of the 19th century and the end of the 18th.

In addition to the aforementioned 18th-century sources there are two other books that specially interpret coursing: O Poryadochnom Soderzhanii Psovoi Okhoty Borzykh i Bonchikh Sobak 1765-go[Proper Maintenance of Coursing With Borzois and Hounds in 1765] and Psovaya Okhota 1775-go[Coursing in 1775], but they contain nothing special; and the Code is still both better and more valuable as material than these two works.

Then the hunting literature is silent until the late 1840s, when we encounter a number of hunting books, to wit: Kniga Dlya Okhotnikov do Zverinoi, Ptichei i Rynboi Lovli, Takzhe do Ruzheinoi Strel’by[A Book for Hunters of Wild Game, Game Fowl, and Game Fish, and also on Rifle Hunting] (Levshin, Moscow, 1910), Yeger’ Psovyi Okhotnik i Strelok [The Hunter, Huntsman, and Rifleman] (Moscow, 1838), Karmannaya Knizhka Russkago Barina Okhotnika [The Pocket Booklet of the Russian Gentleman Hunter] (Moscow, 1840), and Psovaya Okhota [Coursing] (N. Ruett, St. Petersburg, 1846). In all these works we already encounter a division of the borzois used in Russia: long-haired, short-haired, bearded, and purebred; hence, interbreedings were being carried out more and more widely. At this time especially many Polish short-haired dogs came into Russian hunting. Upon returning home, a great many officers who served in Poland brought with them Polish borzois, from which most of our purebred dogs descended.

Around this time officers also began to import eastern dogs from the Caucasus, as Reutt states directly in his Psovaya Okhota. The long-haired dog began to lose its pure breeding more and more. At this time whole hunts of mixed dogs appeared; these are mentioned by Machevarianov in theZhurnal Okhota, No. 3, March 1875, [and] in Zapiski Starago Okhotnika [Memoirs of an Old Hunter], p. 37, where he says: “I would remind old hunters of the borzoi dogs famous for their mettle, which descended from interbreeding of long-haired borzois with the highland12 borzois and which belongs to Ye. N. Timashev, Aye. Al. Stolypin, A. I. Krivkov, Gg. Zhikharev, and many others.”

In general, the 1840s and 1850s brought a great deal of outside blood into Russian hunts.

The Lesnoi Zhurnal i Zhurnal Konnozavodstva i Okhoty [Forest Journal and Journal of Horse Breeding and Hunting] commenced publication in 1841. Here is all that appeared in print over the entire time up until the publication of Min’s Zhurnal Okhoty in 1959, which did not last long. None of these sources other than Min’s Zhurnal Okhoty is of any particular interest, and none reports anything at all.

At the same time, Driyanskii’s Zapiski Melkotravchatago [Memoirs of a Flunky13] came into print – this book is just as remarkable for the details of its description of borzois as the Regul Psovoi Okhoty.

The Zapiski Melkotravchatago gives a detailed description of the long-haired dogs of Aleksei Nikolaevich Kareev, which are known to all; the dogs are known for both their speed and their ferocity. From this description we see once again that the purebred long-haired borzoi was preserved in the same form as described in the Code and that it did not change from 1635 to 1850. For clarity I shall give a description of some dogs of Kareev’s breed. Driyanskii, speaking of the male named “Karai,” says: “He was a bit breamlike, but with a steep peak and on true legs, a lean head; bulgy eyes; a fine muzzle.” That he described Karai as somewhat breamlike does not mean that Kareev’s dogs were in general breamlike, as he stipulates straightaway that Karai had not yet matured and was in his first autumn.

Later, though there is no description of the points of the dogs, from their feats one can judge their powerful constitution and their speed, since they were used to course full-grown wolves as a single pack and steppe hare in the Khonerskii steppes. A non-purebred and less-than-powerful dog would never do this, especially since the dogs in question were not distinguished by particularly great size.

At the point in the memoirs where young borzois are described, it is stated that eight-month-old pups were 30 vershoks in size, but from the age of 8 months a dog will not grow much.

One may say in general that the long-haired dogs of old were not distinguished by enormous size, for Volynskii, in one of his previously mentioned letters to Saltykov, speaks of a male owned by Count Zawisz and is surprised at its height – 19 vershoks. This size is truly large, but from the tone with which Volynskii writes we may assume that he was very surprised by this indeed.

This exact definition of height serves as a weighty argument and proves that our borzois of old were the same in regard to height as now, i.e., they were from an arshin to 17 or 17 1/2 vershoks at the point of the shoulder.

A new era for coursing sets in with the establishment of the “Imperial Hunting Society” and its journal. The most valuable contribution at this time was made by the Zapiski Psovago Okhotnika Simbirskoi Gubernii of P. M. Machevarianov.

In addition to the notes of Machevarianov in the Zhurnal Okhoty Imperatorskago Obshchestva[Hunting Journal of the Imperial Society], a host of articles appeared on the points of the thick-haired and long-haired borzois. All these articles may be divided into two categories: the first includes all descriptions of the dogs of old, long-haired dogs bred by old hunters or by young ones following the words of the oldtimers. These descriptions mostly date to the 1830s and 1840s.

The second category includes all articles of a political character by comparatively young hunters, and there is nothing to analyze in them, since they deal with modern borzois.

In the first category of articles it is noteworthy that in most cases the hunters of old, in describing the points of the long-haired dog, almost agree. Just two of them (Stupishin and Vysheslavtsev) deviate more than the others from the general trend.

All others disagree over such trifles that there is almost no difference; this proves the identical nature of the long-haired dog, with few exceptions, throughout the whole of Russia. This is understandable: any oldtimer knew only his own breed and the breeds of his immediate neighbors. The lack of means of communication, dog shows, and journals prevented them from becoming acquainted with more distant dogs; hence the difference, albeit small, in their statements.

One must not accept that long-haired dogs were similar to one another down to the smallest detail throughout the whole of Russia. Although in those times there were hutches for captured Russian hares in Moscow, distant hunters could not use them for comparison.

This one-sidedness is clearly evident in Machevarianov, a hunter quite remote from Moscow. He mentions dogs in his memoirs: those of Tregubov, Pleshcheev, Sushchev, but says nothing of those of Kareev, Khrapovitskii, Bereznikov, Pavlov, Nazimov, Dubenskii, and others of which he either had not heard at all or had heard vaguely.

In a description of the Russian long-haired dog in general, Machevarianov once again is in disagreement with the Code and with Driyanskii – a fact that is quite significant in determining the points of this breed.

In general, out of the sources I have mentioned, Regul Psovoi Okhoty, Zapiski Melkotravchatgo by Driyanskii, and Zapiski Psovago Okhotnika Simbirskoi Gubernii by P. M. Machevarianov can serve as the cornerstone for describing the points of the Russian long-haired dog.

From these three works we can form some idea of the long-haired borzoi, from 1635 to the first half of the 19th century. The appearance of this dog will be as follows: a height of about 17 vershoks for the male and 16 for the female; long, wavy feathering of various colors; lean head, with a muzzle equal to the head, fine and lean; eyes abulge, dark, with dark eyelashes; small ears, lying flush on the occiput and high-placed; broad back, with a peak in the male and in they body for the female; straight forelegs and hindlegs, with well-developed thigh muscles; thick ribs, dense, below the elbows; long tail in the shape of the crescent moon. That is roughly what all three of these books agree on. All in all, the dog was keen-sighted, powerful, and fast.

Here, it seems to me, I should mention the so-called thick-haired dog, but I hesitate to say anything about it, since we have no direct, historical statements regarding those points that it possessed according to its modern defenders. In this case, I shall refer once again to the Regul Psovoi Okhoty, in which there would be better grounds to search for some information, as the oldest monument of hunting. But the description of the borzoi dog contained therein is nowise similar to that which some modern huntsmen, with Stupishin and Vysheslavtsev at the fore, take as the thick-haired dog.

Nor does the Code contain even a hint of breamlike ribs reminiscnet of a crucian carp, a short pastern, and a hanging tail.

In contrast, it says of the ribs that they should be thick and the tail should be in the shape of the crescent moon, and says nothing about the pastern.

According to the concepts of modern defenders of the thickly long-haired dogs, when could this dog have existed if not in 1635?

All this somehow does not sit well, and would it not be fairer to consider this thick-haired dog to have belonged exclusively to Stupishin and Vysheslavtsev and not to most Russian hunters of old?

The Present Status of the Borzoi Abroad and Here in Russia

The long-haired dog as we understand it in Russia no longer exists anywhere other than here. In all other European countries it is even prohibited by law. It could not be otherwise; in Russia there is only free space, the vast oen spaces, the Slavic good humor, which does not forbid us to trample winter crops and skip through meadows.

Abroad, the dreadful division of real estate, household ownership rather than public ownership by the peasants, make this hunting impossible; even game is becoming a rarity there.

The inhabited localities of Russia, such as Poland and the Ostsee Provinces, come close to the Western states in terms of coursing, although coursing with borzois is not banned there, but there is a tax on the dogs of 15 rubles per head per year, which would come to a pretty penny if one takes into account the number of borzois that exist on complete hunts in Russia. In Poland some hunters still keep several borzois each, but only go afield on horseback, and then only near home, in their own fields, since there it would be inconceivable to make crossings of and to course on someone else’s land.

In the west there is no coursing, as I stated previously; if dogs are kept, they are kept as house dogs that serve only as decoration and whim.

The only place where borzois have a chance to run free is in England, but that is not hunting, only coursing of captured hares for betting and presentation of awards and prizes to the swiftest dogs. There a borzoi may be compared more to a racehorse than to an animal used for hunting. I repeat, there is only Russia where a huntsman can still amuse his spirit.

We may note that of late coursing has revived among us here in Russia in comparison with the 1860s and the early 1870s, when, following the emancipation of the peasantry, the hunts went down by the hundreds.

The emancipation of the peasantry created an enormous revolution in regard to coursing and to borzois. Prior to emancipation, it was the rare landowner who did not have hunting, and everyone kept borzois – if not the masters, then the people. After the emancipation of the peasantry, dogs remained only in the possession of true hunters, for whom it was harder to part with their beloved pets than it was for ordinary hunters.

Under serfdom, hunts were held more out of vanity and idleness than out of passion. Dog breeds were managed somehow, and in most cases the masters gave this activity to their hound-masters. It may be said positively that at that time, the more elegant and the larger the hunt, the worse the dogs. Of course, there also were good dogs, but they were the exception, and the overall level nonetheless remained poor. The barin (a member of the landowner gentry) chose the best of them for his pack, but the people went out with whatever came their way. Full attention in such hunts was paid to the uniform coloring of the horses and to the riders’ habits. At departure, such a hunt presented a pretty picture to the eyes indeed. Businesslike, seriou hunts were never distinguished by the quantity of the dogs but by their quality, and in the field, of course, they held sway over enormous purebred hunts.

Thus, what did the emancipation of the serfs bring our coursing – harm or good?

I believe it brought good: in that it forced us to view this activity more seriously and to engage in it more efficiently than we had done before. At the present time, most hunters engage in hunting out of passion, and not out of vanity and whim alone. One misfortune is that we can never agree to something positive in defining the points of a borzoi dog, and perhaps we never shall. Why is this so?

All the modern literature in this regard errs in one regard: the desire to push all existing dogs under one type, one breed. Any of us who has dogs would deflect the question, treating with an utter lack of tolerance the dogs of other hunters. From this derives a babel that is hard to imagine.

One fellow recognizes only the thick-haired dog of old, another the Machevarianov dogs, a third the Kareev dogs, a fourth recognizes none of them, considering a good dog to be only one that catches or ferociously takes a wolf, and so forth. Everyone refers to England and the English, setting them as examples for our hunters; the rating of dogs at dog shows has been set up to the English taste.

In the West certain types of borzois have existed since antiquity, of which only the short-haired borzoi, called the English wolfhound, now remains. Its type is so firmly set in the minds of hunters that we would not think of arguing over the points of dogs, and we would not even dream of disputing the length of a pastern or more or less barrel-shaped ribs. As early as in the 15th century the type of dog in the West was defined quite clearly and firmly; all this occurred solely as a result of the existence of hunting literature, which we did not have.

In order to free us of the existing confusion, I must renounce imitation of the English and set to work with my own mind. Don’t we have one, after all? And can we no longer get along without foreign teachers – we who have such a marvelous dog as our long-haired borzoi?

Our forebears knew how to maintain and keep this marvelous breed without the aid of the English point system and without manuals, but we cannot; we need teachers and manuals.

But why? It all comes from our lack of tolerance for each other, from our unconcern and carelessness; if three hunters get together, there will be three views of the points of a borzoi; each would praise his own dogs and censure the others.

Some of the veteran huntsmen have caused some harm to young hunters through their praise of the thick-haired dogs of old, and in general of dogs of the past, and through their faulting of modern hunts.

This praise often was inconsistent in character in descriptions of the points and qualities of dogs. In general, in many cases things took a turn such that it was as if, in times past, there existed no other dogs other than purebred, thick-haired giants, real beauties that one could come across at practically every step and in whatever quantity needed. Young hunters, hearing these stories, became convinced that in times past there were no poor dogs, without making the effort to reflect and understand that nothing of the kind could have existed.

Both before and now there were and are undoubtedly good and bad dogs, there were long-haired, short-haired, Crimean, and bearded dogs, and they all were interbred by the very same hunting veterans who cry about the pure-bloodedness and breeding of the borzois of old. I can confirm my opinion with written evidence from years past. Our dogs were the same as remained, and only after satisfying ourselves of this and by trying to improve breeding will we be able to place what we have on solid footing and properly conduct the business of Russian dog breeding without giving in to some ideals that did not exist. We have rich material, and it is nowise inferior to that which our forebears had. Where one senses a deficiency is in the abundance of hares, the proving ground of any borzoi.

Our oldtimers could have tested us better and improved the speed of their dogs through constant coursing.

Understandably, the more often a borzoi gallops, the more benefit there is for it, and our forebears coursed in the fall, in part of the winter, and in the spring. A dog had constant practice, and what practice! – throught the fall it could display its speed and strength when it could chase ar least 10 or 15 hares a day. When hunters set out, no one thought about whether there would be enough game for the dogs: there were as many hares as one could wish. No manuals and no hunts of captured game will improve speed if, apart from them, the dog does not have sufficient practice afield from generation to generation.

Intensified coursing of wolves, ignoring hares, has drawn modern dog breeders into an enormous mistake in the breeding of studs, and this mistake has of course resulted in a loss of the dogs’ speed in favor of their ferocity.

Some young hunters err mainly through their impatience in dog breeding. Maintaining a breed, which anyone would like to do, is hardly easy an undertaking as many imagine. One needs a great deal of patience, observation, experience, and mainly caution in this endeavor. The breeds that we know were bred and improved for decades. The breeders did their work carefully, sorting their dogs, and never dreamed of improving the breed in 3 or 4 years, but did their work unhurriedly. Many businesslike hunters did not take their dogs, especially males, on a long trip before the age of 2; nor were females put on the leash before reaching full development.

We now have a ferocity prize for males in their first autumn. In order for a year-old to course for wolf, he must first be broken in, i.e., he must go afield in the fall when, strictly speaking, this should not happen in a real, businesslike hunt.

Only by strictly observing dogs personally is it possible to breed something sensible. A female should not be put on a leash before its full maturity, before it displays its good field merits and before it has had more than three litters. The male should not be worked on the hunt in his first fall, so that it is always wise and happy and does not feel fatigued. Old and very young males should not be used to produce pups, but should be released for breeding after they are first well-tested in the field. Many pups should not be left under the bitch, but only that number which it can feed without harm to the pups.

Now I shall ask our dog breeders openly to tell me whether all the foregoing rules are observed on many hunts. These rules were not invented by me, but by our hunting authorities, who have demonstrated in fact what a dog breeder can accomplish if they are observed. If one observes all the above, it is impossible to do anything at all in a short time interval.

Recently our hunters raised the cry that the English had outgalloped our long-haired dogs; but who was at fault here? No one other than ourselves! One ought not to doubt that the breed of Russian long-haired dogs is faster in principle than English short-haired wolfhounds, not to mention Scottish deerhounds. But no one wants to draw attention to the fact that the breeding stock for our English borzois was conscripted from England and that these dogs, being shorter, grow up faster than our long-haired dogs. Moreover, the English do not chase ferocity to the detriment of speed, but the same cannot be said of us! I am firmly convinced that a purebred short-haired dog always will outgallop the English wolfhound and, if we conduct our business unhurriedly and without being fascinated with ferocity, our dogs always would outgallop and outcatch the English dogs. Our breeding ability has not yet been lost, but patience and still more patience are needed, and nothing can be done straightaway.

Our dog shows always have brought and continue to bring good to Russian dog breeding, but only to some extent. For hunters who have the opportunity to visit Moscow, it is of course pleasant and useful to get acquainted and talk, but for others little good comes of the shows. Society is not at fault here, of course, and one could hardly blame the vastness of our homeland.

Reading the pages of Russian hunting journals, one is struck by the attention with which our huntsmen treat everything related to dog shows, competitions, and various disputes over the points of the borzoi. One can see how much everyone wants to achieve something and to agree, but why then have people been writing for many years, arguing, without reaching any conclusion? Why is this? God alone knows. Many hunters want the Imperial Society to separate dog breeds for dog shows into thick-haired, long-haired, and purebred long-haired dogs, but I know not whether that division would lead to anything in dog breeding. Hardly!

From my hunting practice and frequent listening to various conversations and arguments, I have drawn the conclusion that our hunters say one thing but do something else in their hunts. That is, anyone manages a breed of dogs without holding to one of the types mentioned above, and does so however circumstances allow and however he likes. Of course, there are exceptions where the dog breeders holds to precisely what he propounds. But where are they not? Therefore, I think that dividing the breeds would hardly lead us anywhere.

Hunters must not be ordered to hold to various points in a borzoi dog, and anyone will continue to do what he always has done heretofore. There is time for everything. Previously, our fathers became fascinated with speed and some of them shrank dogs down to miniature size. We by contrast have become fascinated with ferocity and have bred giants with a death grip but we have damaged their speed. It is very hard indeed to combine these two traits in one, and it is impossible to say how long it will take to do so.

The organization of speed competitions and the fact that the English have outgalloped our long-haired dogs have sobered us, with respect to ferocity, and the very fact of the victory of the English will force our dog breeders to match ferocity to speed in future generations. This lesson will not pass us by without benefit.

I do not want to say thereby that a borzoi does not need ferocity, but in my view it is more pleasant to take a full-grown wolf from under six fast dogs than from under one dull one, no matter what its dashing ferocity, especially since the ferocity of borzois can be developed very quickly, at least more quickly than speed. The whole matter lies in constant practice and, what is the main thing, in the hunters – the dogs of a venturesome, bold borzoi keeper are more and more ferocious with each go.

Ultimately one still can say that coursing is flourishing here in Russia compared with what we had 20 years ago. Huntsmen, thanks to the “Imperial Society for Breeding of Hunting and Working Animals,” have ceased to skulk, to be ashamed, as it were, of their passion. They have understood that there are still a good many of them in Russia, and that they may openly and directly declare that they belong to the ranks of huntsmen, that all the previous reprimands of huntsmen as rowdies, drunks, and in general restless people have no place. I remember what joy and what festive people hunters encountered and met at the first dog shows in Moscow; everyone was saying: “Oh yes, there are still many of us and our line is still not entirely lost.”

Arguments over the points of dogs began at the very first shows. But despite these disputes and conversations, frankly speaking, which have no basis, the cause of coursing is moving increasingly to solid ground with every passing year. Of course, a great deal more time will be needed for us to come up with something general, sensible, and integral; but a start has been made, and thanks for that. Coursing has become one of our rights, and with each year the number of hunts increases.

Many young hunters have appeared who are passionately devoted to their avocation and who treat the subject seriously.

Although the economic situation of our landholders in recent years has prevented them from making big outlays on their passion, this situation is temporary, and when it passes the field will expand even more; the number of dogs bought serves as a good yardstick in this regard. About 7 or 8 years ago the trade in borzoi dogs was moving along quite smartly; this proves that there was a demand for the dogs, which incidentally exists even now, but it has decreased only because of the aforementioned economic difficulty. In general, the quality of our borzoi in its external forms has improved most recently, despite all the blunders in showing. This is easy to prove in that most dogs at dog shows are good dogs, despite the fact that nearly all of them sell; hence they are not in themselves the best exemplars, as those remain at home and hunters do not bring them to the dog shows.

I believe that it is an important sign of the improvement of dog breeding when the rejects of our hunts are so good that they receive awards and win over buyers.

Recently many new hunts with dogs have started up, and in nearly every province we can find two or three hunting businesses; of course, not all of them have flawless dogs, but what can you do? – you can’t achieve anything right out of the box. One must hope that the passion for this noble amusement will not die out among us, as long as Russia still has our vast fields and hares, foxes, and wolves bound across them.

One thing that we might yet wish for our young hunters is that they not become overly interested in anything foreign, that they strictly adhere to things Russian, and that they improve our marvelous breed of Russian borzois, like which there is no other on earth and never will be, only through rigorous breeding.

The passion for coursing isinnate in every Russian and is passed along in the blood from generation to generation. Ask any hunter and huntsmen will be found in his forebears without fail.

The present generation of comparatively young hunters, no matter what they may say, must convey constant profound gratitude to those veterans of coursing who, despite the general devastation after the destruction of serfdom, have preserved for us our fast and ferocious beauties.

Honor and glory to these hunters who, sitting in their corners, in different parts of Russia, have patiently weathered the storm and not parted with their beloved animals. The work of true hunters is only to continue and improve that which they have inherited from the oldtimers. It is now easier to do this since we have had hunting literature, dog shows, and railroads.


1 Translator’s note: The term “borzoi” as applied to non-Russian dogs, should be construed to mean a tall, lean dog with a long muzzle and tail. At most occurences of the word, the generic translation “borzoi” is used in this book, but in some passages the term “wolfhound” or “hound” is dictated by context.

2 Translator’s note: The Russian word “lyagavye” (“legavye” in modern Russian) is here translated as “sporting dogs.”

3 In the Russian text, two spellings are used for this breed: “allane” and “alane.” Since no available French reference gives either spelling, the translation mirrors the spelling in Russian.

4Translator’s note: An “island,” as used here, is an isolated small forest.

5Translator’s note: One verst is approximately 3500 feet, or 1.06 kilometers.

6Translator’s note: One vershok is about 1.75 inches, or 4.4 centimeters

7Translator’s note: The Russian phrase translated here as “at the point of the shoulder” is “v naklone,” which in modern Russian literally means “at the slope.” The translation used here is inferred from context.

8Translator’s note: “Howl-hunting” is a coined translation for a type of hunting in which one or more dogs give out a wolf-howl to attract wolves for the hunt.

9 Translator’s note: One arshin is approximately 28 inches or 71 centimeters.

10 Translator’s note: A “stolnik” was a courtier rank below “boyar” (baron).

11 Translator’s note: “Beard” is a speculative translation of the old Russian “voshchechek,” which does not appear in any available reference.

12 Translator’s note: “Highland” in this context specifically refers to the Caucasus Mountains.

13 Translator’s note: In this context, “flunky” may refer to the individual’s official position or may be a nickname.


Information by Nadezhda Knyazewa

From the magazine "L'Éleveur" (France) 1893
"The pack of Russian Wolfhounds (Borzois) of The Emperor of Russia"
The Information to this photo:
"These two dogs are Oudar and Zlobny Dourassoff. They were part of a group of Russian greyhounds brought to Cruft's in 1892 by Grand Duke Nicolas Nicolaievich."(Thank for your information-Madelaine Gasser)


No photo description available.

ORLOFF, 1 1/2 years, v. Sokol II u. Loebka
"... The complaint, expressed in our previous song, that it is so difficult to get a successful photography of a barzoi, gave Mr S. J. Baron of Tuyll of Serooskerke in Arnhem a photograph to send us from Orlof, who can indeed be called beautiful. We rarely saw more beautiful photography of an animal. We reproduce it above, but cannot be in the shadow of the photographie. However, she is clear enough to show our readers which is a beautiful animal Orlof. He is one and a half years old and descended from the well-known Loebka and Sokol 11, by Mr Dobbelmann in Rotterdam. As it is for sale, we do believe that a buyer will soon gain..."
Istočnik: ′′ Dutch sport ′′ Saturday 2 February 1895 No 654 Fourteenth Yeargagng


Pictures from life at the Korbutovsky hunt!

A.P. Korbutovsky was not an important breeder. Borzoi from this hunt is hardly found in the studbooks.

He was a hunter, his borzoi came from Zikharev, Boldareff and others and that makes these pictures so interesting. There was not only the very rich with perhaps hundreds of borzoi but also the small hunter with 10 to 12 borzoi or even less, who bred occasionally or not at all!

Feeding the borzoi
Missing media.
Out to the field
Rest after day at hunt
  1.                                                                    Wolfhunting in Russia
A wolf caught alive" Alexei Danilovich Kivshenko (1851-1895)


 The enormous extent and diversified conditions of the various localities of this empire would naturally suggest a variety of sport in hunting and shooting, including perhaps something characteristic. In the use of dogs of the chase especially is this suggestion borne out by the facts, and it has been said that in no other country has the systematic working together of fox-hounds and greyhounds been successfully carried out. Unfortunately, this sort of hunting is not now so general due to the emancipation of the serfs in 1861. A modest kennel for such sport consists of six to ten fox-hounds and four to six pairs of barzois,* and naturally demands considerable attention. Moreover, to use it requires the presence of at least one man with the fox-hounds and one man for each pair or each three greyhounds.

To have a sufficient number of good huntsmen at his service was *Barzoi—long-haired greyhound, wolf-hound, Russian greyhound. a much less expensive luxury to a proprietor than now, and to this fact is due the decline of the combined kennel in Russia. This hunt is more or less practised throughout the entire extent of the Russian Empire. In the south, where the soil is not boggy, it is far better sport than in Northern Russia, where there are such enormous stretches of marshy woods and tundra. Curiously enough, nearly all the game of these northern latitudes, including moose, wolves, hares, and nearly all kinds of grouse and other birds, seem to be found in the marshiest places—those almost impracticable to mounted hunters.

Though the distances covered in hunting, and also in making neighborly visits in Russia, are vast, often recalling our own broad Western life, yet in few other respects are any similarities to be traced. This is especially true of Russia north of the Moscow parallel ; for in the south the steppes have much in common with the prairies, though more extensive, and the semi-nomadic Cossacks, in their mounted peregrinations and in their pastoral life, have many traits in common with real Americans. Nor is it true of the Caucasus, where it would seem that the Creator, dissatisfied with the excess of the great plain,* extending from the Finnish Gulf to the Black Sea, resolved to establish a counterpoise, and so heaved up the gigantic Caucasus.

There, too, are to be found fine hunting and shooting which merit description and which offer good sport to mountain amateurs. The annual hunt in the fall of 1893 in the governments of Tver and Yaroslav, with the Gatchino kennels, will give a good idea of the special sport of which I have spoken. It is imperative that these hounds go to the hunt once a year for about a month, although for the most part without their owner. The master of the hunt and his assistant, with three or four guests and oftentimes the proprietors of the lands where the hounds happen to hunt, usually constitute the party. The hunt changes locality nearly every year, but rarely does it go further from home than on this occasion, about 450 versts from Gatchino. As a rule it is not difficult to obtain from proprietors permission to hunt upon their estates, and this is somewhat surprising to one who has seen the freedom with which the fences are torn down and left unrepaired.

* The Waldeir hills, extending east and west half-way between St.Petersburg and Moscow, are the only exception.

"Fee hunting" Rudolf Feodorovitch Frenz

It is true that they are not of the strongest and best type, and that peasant labor is still very cheap ; yet such concessions to sport would rarely be made in America. It was at Gatchino, on the l0th day of September, that the hunting train was loaded with men, horses, dogs, provisions and wagons. The hunt called for twenty-two cars in all, including one second-class passenger car, in one end of which four of us made ourselves comfortable, while in the other end servants found places. The weather was cold and rainy, and, as our train traveled as a freight, we had two nights before us. It was truly a picturesque and rare sight to see a train of twenty-two cars loaded with the personnel, material and live stock of a huge kennel.

The fox-hounds, seventy in number, were driven down in perfect, close order by the beaters to the cracks of the Russian hunting whip and installed in their car, which barely offered them sufficient accommodation. The greyhounds, three sorts, sixty-seven in number, were brought down on leashes by threes, fours or fives, and loaded in two cars. Sixty saddle and draft horses, with saddles, wagons and hunting paraphernalia, were also loaded. Finally the forty-four gray and green uniformed huntsmen, beaters, drivers and ourselves were ready, and the motley train moved away amid the uttered and unuttered benedictions of the families and relatives of the parting hunt.

Our first destination was Peschalkino, in the government of Tver, near the River Leet, a tributary of the Volga, not far from the site of the first considerable check of the Mongolian advance about 1230. I mention this fact in passing to give some idea of the terrain, because I think that it is evident to anyone who has visited this region that the difficulty of provisioning and of transportation in these marshes must have offered a greater obstacle to an invading army than did the then defenders of their country. We passed our time most agreeably in playing vint* and talking of hunting incidents along the route. Many interesting things were told about the habits of wolves and other game, and, as they were vouched for by two thorough gentlemen and superb sportsmen, and were verified as far as a month's experience in the field would permit, I feel authorized to cite them as facts.

* Vint—game of cards resembling whist.

"Bear Hunting" Unknown artist



The bear has been called in folklore the moujik's brother, and it must be conceded that there are outward points of resemblance, especially when each is clad in winter attire; moreover the moujik, when all is snow and ice, fast approximates the hibernating qualities of the bear. One strong point of difference is the accentuated segregative character of the former, who always live in long cabin villages.*

But it is rather of the wolf's habits and domestic economy that I wish to speak—of him who has always been the dreaded and accursed enemy of the Russian peasant. In the question of government the wolf follows very closely the system of the country, which is pre-eminently patriarchal—the fundamental principle of the mir. A family of wolves may vary in number from six to twenty, and contain two to four generations, usually two or three, yet there is always one chief and one wife—in other words, never more than one female with young ones.

* The bear is caricatured in Russian publications as a humorous, light-hearted, joking creature, conversing and making common ith the golden-hearted moujik, his so-called brother. 

"Wolf taken alive" Alexei Danilovich Kishenko (1851-1895)


When larger packs have been seen together it was probably the temporary marshaling of their forces for some desperate raid or the preliminaries of an anarchistic strike. The choruses of wolves and the special training of the young for them are interesting characteristics. Upon these choruses depends the decision of the hunter whether or not to make his final attack upon the stronghold of the wolves; by them he can tell with great precision the number in the family and the ages of the different members.

They are to wolf-hunters what tracks are to moose- and bear-hunters—they serve to locate the game. When the family is at home they occur with great regularity at twilight, midnight and dawn. In camp near Billings, Montana, in the fall of 1882, we heard nightly about 12 o'clock the howling of a small pack of coyotes; but we supposed that it was simply a "howling protest" against the railway train, passing our camp at midnight, that had just reached that part of the world. Possibly our coyotes have also howling choruses at regular intervals, like the Russian wolves.

There was such a fascination in listening to the wolves that we went out several times solely for that purpose. The weirdness of the sound and the desolateness of the surroundings produced peculiar sensations upon the listener. that the wolves were "at home" at midnight as well as dawn. While in the vicinity of a certain wolf family whose habitat was an enormous marshy wood, entirely impossible to mounted men, we were compelled to await for forty-eight hours the return of the old ones, father and mother. At times during this wait only the young ones, at other times the young and the intermediate ones, would sing. Not hearing the old ones, we inferred they were absent, and so they were off on a raid, during which they killed two peasant horses ten miles from their stronghold. It was supposed that the wolves of intermediate age also made excursions during this time, as indicated by the bowlings, but not to such great distances as the old ones. It was perfectly apparent, as we listened one evening, that the old ones had placed the young ones about a verst away and were making them answer independently. This seemed too human for wolves.

"Hunters with Borzois" P P Sokolov

After one day and two nights of travel we arrived at the little station of Peschalkino, on the Bologoe-Rybinsk Railway, not far from the frontier between the two governments, Tver and Yaroslav, where we were met by two officers of the guard, a Yellow Cuirassier and a Preobiajensky, on leave of absence on their estates (Koy), sixteen versts from the rail. They were brothers-in-law and keen sportsmen, who became members of our party and who indicated the best localities for game.on their property, as well as on the adjoining estates. Peschalkino boasts a painted country tavern of two stories, the upper of which, with side entrance, we occupied, using our own beds and bed linen, table and table linen, cooking and kitchen utensils; in fact, it was a hotel where we engaged the walled-in space and the brick cooking stove. As to the huntsmen and the dogs, they were quartered in the adjacent unpainted log-house peasant village —just such villages as are seen all over Russia, in which a mud road, with plenty of mud, comprises all there is of streets and avenues.

After having arranged our temporary domicile, and having carefully examined horses and dogs to see how they had endured the journey, we made ready to accept a dinner invitation at the country place of our new members. Horses were put to the brake, called by the Russians Amerikanka (American), and we set out for a drive of sixteen versts over a mud road to enjoy the well-known Slav hospitality so deeply engrafted in the Ponamaroff family. I said road, but in reality it scarcely merits the name, as it is neither fenced nor limited in width other than by the sweet will of the eler. Special mention is made of this road because its counterparts exist all over the em­pire. It is the usual road, and not the excep­tion, which is worse, as many persons have ample reasons for knowing. This condition is easily explained by the scarcity of stone, the inherent disregard of comfort, the poverty of the peasants, the absence of a yeoman class, and the great expense that would be entailed upon the landed proprietors, who live at enormous distances from each other. The country in these and many other governments has been civilized many generations, but so unfinished and primitive does it all seem that it recalls many localities of our West, where civilization appeared but yesterday, and where tomorrow it will be well in advance of these provinces. The hand-flail, the wooden plow­share, the log cabin with stable under the same roof, could have been seen here in the twelfth century as they are at present. Thanks to the Moscow factories, the gala attire of the peasant of today may possibly surpass in bril­liancy of color that of his remote ancestry, which was clad entirely from the home loom. With the exception of the white brick church­es, whose tall green and white spires in the distance appear at intervals of eight to ten versts, and of occasional painted window cas­ings, there is nothing to indicate that the colorings of time and nature are not preferable to those of art. The predominating features of the landscape are the windmills and the evenness of the grain-producing country, dot­ted here and there by clumps of woods, called islands. The churches, too, are conspicuous by their number, site, and beauty of architect­ure; school-houses, by their absence. Prior to 1861 there must have been a veritable mania here for church-building. The land, and beau­tiful church at Koy, as well as two other pre­tentious brick ones, were constructed on his estates by the grandfather of our host. Arriving at Koy, we found a splendid coun­try place, with brick buildings, beautiful gar­dens, several hot-houses and other luxuries, all of which appeared the more impressive by con­trast. The reception and hospitality accorded us at Koy—where we were highly entertained with singing, dancing and cards until midnight —was as bounteous as the darkness and rain­fall which awaited us on the sixteen versts' drive over roadless roads back to our quarter bivouac at Peschalkino.

"Illustration from War&Peace" by A.Kivshenko

The following morning marked the begin­ning of our hunting. About 10 o'clock all was in readiness. Every hunter* had been pro­vided with a leash, a knife and a whip; and, naturally, every huntsman with the two latter. In order to increase the number of posts, some of the huntsmen were also charged with leashes of greyhounds. I shall in the future use the word greyhound to describe all the sight hounds, in contradistinction to fox­hound ; it includes barzois (Russian grey­hounds), greyhounds (English) and crosses between the two. The barzois numbered about 75 per cent. of all the greyhounds, and were for the most part somewhat less speedy than the real greyhounds, but better adapted for wolf-hunting. They also have greater skill in taking hold, and this, even in hare coursing, sometimes gives them advantage over faster dogs. One of the most interesting features of the coursing was the matching of Russian and English greyhounds. The leash system used in the field offers practically the same fairness as is shown by dogs at regular coursing matches. The leash is a black row leather thong about fifteen feet long, with a loop at one end that passes over the right shoulder and under the left arm. The long thong with a slit at the end, forming the hand loop, is, when not in use, folded up like a lariat or a driving rein, and is stuck under the knife belt. To use it, the end is put through the loop-ring collars, which the greyhounds con­tinually wear, and is then held fast in the left hand until ready to slip the hounds. Where the country is at all brushy, three dogs are the practical limit of one leash, still for the most part only two are employed. It is surprising to see how quickly the dogs learn the leash with mounted huntsmen two or three days are sufficient to teach them to remain at the side of the horse and at a safe distance from his feet. Upon seeing this use of the leash with two dogs each, I was curious to know why it should be so; why it would not be more exciting to see half a dozen or more hounds in hot pursuit racing against each other and having a common goal, just as it is more exciting to see a horse race with a numerous entry than merely with two com­petitors. This could have been remedied, so I thought, by having horsemen go in pairs,or having several dogs when possible on one leash. Practice showed the wisdom of the methods actually employed. In the first place, it is fairer for the game; in the second, it saves the dogs ; and finally, it allows a greater territory to be hunted over with the same number of dogs.

"Taking the hold" A Tikhmenev

There are two ways of hunting foxes and hares, and, with certain variations, wolves also. These are by beating and driving with fox­hounds, and by open driving with greyhounds alone. In the first case a particular wood (island) is selected, and the fox-hounds with their mounted huntsmen are sent to drive it in a certain direction. The various leashes of greyhounds (barzois alone if wolves be expect­ed) are posted on the opposite side, at the edge of the wood or in the field, and are loosed the second the game has shown its in­tention of clearing the open space expressly selected for the leash. The mounted beaters with the fox-hounds approach the thick woods of evergreens, cottonwood, birch and under­growth, and wait on its outskirts until a bugle signal informs them that all the greyhound posts are ready. The fox-hounds recognize the signal, and would start immediately were they not terrorized by the black nagazka—a product of a. country that has from remotest times preferred the knout* to the gallows, and so is skilled in its manufacture and use. At the word go from the chief beater the seventy fox-hounds, which have been huddled up as closely as the encircling beaters could make them, rush into the woods. In a few minutes, sometimes seconds, the music begins—and what music! I really think there are too many musicians, for the voices not being clas­sified, there is no individuality, but simply a prolonged hovel. For my part, I prefer fewer hounds, where the individual voices may be distinguished. It seemed to be a needless use of so many good dogs, for half the number would drive as well but they were out for exercise and training, and they must have it. Subsequently the pack was divided into two, but this was not necessitated by fatigue of the hounds, for we hunted on alternate days with greyhounds alone.

"Hunting the wolf" NikolaI Sverchkov

One could well believe that foxes might remain a long time in the woods, even when pursued by such noise; but it seemed to me that the hares. would have passed the line of posts more quickly than they did. At the suitable moment, when the game was seen, the nearest leash was slipped, and when they seemed to be on the point of losing another and sometimes a third was slipped. The poor fox-hounds were not allowed to leave the woods; the moment any game appeared in the open space they were driven back by the stiff riders with their cruel whips. The true fox­hound blood showed itself, and to succeed in beating some of them off the trail, especially the young ones, required most rigorous action on the part of all. This seemed to me a pros­titution of the good qualities of a race care­fully bred for centuries, and, while realizing the necessity of the practice for that variety of hunt, I could never look upon it with com­plaisance.

It is just this sort of hunt* for which the barzoi has been specially bred, and which has developed in him a tremendous spring; at the same time it has given him less endurance than the English greyhound. It was highly interesting to follow the hounds with the beat­ers; but, owing to the thickness of the woods and the absence of trails, it was far from being an easy task either for horse or rider. To re­main at a post with a leash of hounds was hardly active or exciting enough for me--ex­cept when driving wolves—especially when the hounds could be followed, or when the open hunt could be enjoyed. In the second case the hunters and huntsmen with leashes form a line with intervals of many yards and march for versts straight across the country, cracking the terrible nagaika and uttering peculiar ex­citing yells that would start game on a parade ground. After a few days I flattered myself that I could manage my leash fairly and slip them passably well. To two or three of the party leashes were not intrusted, either be­cause they did not desire them or for their want of experience in general with dogs and horses. To handle a leash well requires ex­perience and considerable care. To prevent tangling in the horse's legs, especially at the moment the game is sighted, requires that the hounds be held well in hand, and that they be not slipped until both have sighted the game. I much prefer the open hunt to the post sys­tem. There is more action, and in fact more sport, whether it happens that one or several leashes be slipped for the same animal. When it is not possible to know whose dogs have taken the game, it belongs to him who arrived first, providing that he has slipped his leash. So much for the foxes and hares, but the more interesting hunting of wolves remains. Few people except wolf-hunters—and they are reluctant to admit it—know how rarely old wolves are caught with hounds. All admit the danger of taking an old one either by a dagger thrust or alive from under* barzois, however good they be. There is always a possibilty they lose their grip, or to be thrown off just at the critical moment, but the greatest difficulty consists of the inability of the hounds to hold the wolf even when they have overtaken him.When its remembered that a full grown wolf is nearly twice as heavy as the average Borzoi and that pound for pound, he is stronger, it is clear that to overtake and hold him requires great speed and grit on the part of the pair of hounds. A famous kennel, Perchina, which two years since caught 46 wolves by the combined system, caught only one old wolf, that is three years or older. The same kennel last year caught 26, without a single old one among them.We likewise failed to include in our own capture, a single old wolf. I mention these facts to correct the false impression that exists with us, concerning the borzois, evidenced by the great disappointment when two years since, a pair in one of the western states, failed to kill outright a full grown timberwolf.

the hold
"End of the hunt" Pytr Petrovitch Sokolov 1880

At the field trials on wolf, which take place twice a year at Colominaghi, near St Petersburg, immediately after the regular field trials on hares, I have seen as many as five leashes slipped before an old wolf could be taken, and then it was done only with the greatest diffi­culty. In fact, as much skill depends upon the borzatnik (huntsman) as the dogs. Almost the very second the dogs take hold he simply falls from his horse upon the wolf and endeav­ors to thrust the unbreakable handle of his nagaika between the jaws of the animal ; he then wraps the lash around the wolf's nose and head. If the hounds are able to hold even a few seconds, the skilled borzatnik has had sufficient time, but there is danger even to the best. I saw an experienced man get a thumb terribly lacerated while muzzling a wolf, yet he succeeded, and in an incredibly short time. On another occasion, even before the brace of hounds had taken firm neck or ear holds, I saw a bold devil of a huntsman swing from his horse and in a twinkling lie prone upon an old wolf's head. How this man, whose pluck I shall always admire, was able to muzzle the brute without injury to himself, and with inefficient support from his hounds is not easy to understand, though I was within a few yards of the struggle. Such skill comes from long experience, indifference to pain and, of course, pride in his profession. Having hunted foxes and hares, and having been shooting as often as the environs of Pes­chalkino and our time allowed, we changed our base to a village twenty-two versts distant over the border in the government of Yaros­lay. It was a village like all others of this grain and Its district, where the livestock and poultry shared the same roof with their owners. A family of eleven wolves had been located about three versts from it by a pair of huntsmen sent some days in advance this ex­plained our arrival.

Peasant kitchen in Russia 

In making this change, I do not now recall that we saw a single house other than those of the peasant villages and the churches. I fancy that in the course of time these peasants may have more enlight­enment, a greater ownership in the land, and may possibly form a yeoman class. At the present the change, slow as it is, seems to point in that direction. With their limited possessions, they are happy and devoted sub­jects. The total of the interior decorations of every house consists of icons, of cheap colored pictures of the imperial family and of samo­vars. In our lodgings, the house of the village slarost, the three icons